Saturday, 18 April 2015

MOTHER- A MESSAGE FOR YOU FROM ME IN YOUR WOMB!!!!


You felt me the day I formed in you, you felt me every time I moved in you, you felt me shape up in you, you felt my first heartbeat, my first touch, my first cry, my first yawn, my first blinking of my eyes. I have been troubling you ever since I came in you whether it’s that morning sickness, that nausea, that breathlessness every time you spoke or the constant needle pricks for those 9 months to make sure I am totally safe and doing well in you.

You felt me when even I couldn't feel my own self, you could sense every time I needed food, each time I wanted to play inside you ,you would just twist and turn throughout the night without complaining so that I could play my unknown games. I kicked you so hard so many times from inside and every time it used to hurt I know but u never said anything and you just smiled because it was me.

You changed everything about your existence for me. It started with you changing your eating habits, your like’s dislikes I know you loved having morning tea with daddy but I dint like tea so you stopped having it even before I came into this world, I loved having that health drink with milk and u hated it all your life but you had it only for me. Each meal of the day you had as per what I liked and till then I was not even a month old in you.

The next big change for you was when I started growing in you month by month and your body started deforming. Now you could no longer wear your favorite dresses but you still always smiled with a mere thought of my existence in you. I was getting bigger and your body was getting weaker now even the stretch marks were showing on your belly, your fingers and feat were swollen because your body couldn’t bear my weight but you dint care a bit about your skin, your beauty, your body or yourself at all, all you cared about is me, me and me.

I used to constantly see you and feel you from inside I used to talk to you in your thoughts, I used to love it when you danced alone in the room carefully thinking about me, I used to be so excited when you shopped for me just before my arrival I used to chose everything through your eyes, I used love papa when he used to hug both of us in the night. He is a nice man I like him because he takes care of you. And finally the day came when I was jumping up and down to come out and see this beautiful world with you. But even on that day I gave you so much of pain, you almost took a second birth for me momi so that I can start my new journey with you and papa. I wanted to come out as soon as possible so that I could reduce your suffering because I cannot see you in pain mother but it weren't too easy for me either. But now I am very happy because we both are fine and most importantly I am with you sleeping beside you. I would like to thank you mother for bringing me into this colorful, beautiful, challenging world stage. I promise to perform my best. And yes I promise you I will never leave you and will stay with you like a shadow. But you are my life, air, existence and I am incomplete without you.

Friday, 10 April 2015

Tamil culture and literature




jkpoH jpUkzk;
ef;fPud;
 
Kjy; gjpg;G - gq;Fdp 2000
tpiy - gj;J ($ 10) nlhyH
jkpo;j; nja;t tzf;fk;
(g/whopirf; nfhr;rff; fypg;gh)
ePH Mடுk; fly; cLj;j epykle;ijf;F vopy; xOFk;
rPH MUk; tjdk; vdj; jpfo;gujf; fz;lk;> ,jpy;
jf;f rpW gpiw EjYk; jupj;j eWk; jpyfKNk
njf; fzKk;> mjpw;rpwe;j jpuhtpley; jpUehLk;
mj; jpy
f thridNghy; midj;J cyFk; ,d;gk; cw
vj; jpirAk; Gfo;kzf;f ,Ue;jngUk; jkpo; mzq;Nf
gy; capUk; gy cyFk; gilj;J mspj;Jj; Jilf;fpDk; XH
vy;iy mW guk;;nghUs;Kd;  ,Ue;jgb ,Ug;gJNghy;
fd;dlKk; fspnjYq;Fk; ftpd;kiyahsKk; JSTk;

cd; cjuj;J cjpj;J vOe;Nj xd;Wgy  MapbDk;
Mupak;Nghy; cyf tof;F mope;J xope;J rpijah
cd;;
rPH ,sikj;  jpwk;tpae;J nray;kwe;J tho;j;JJNk!
(kNdhd;kzpak; jkpo;g; NguhrpupaH Re;judhH)
 
 Arungarland.jpg (43224 bytes)
mUz;nkhop jkpo;r; nry;tp jkpo;j; jpUkzk;
ts;StH nra; jpUf;Fwis kWtwed; FzHe;NjhHfs;
cs;StNuh kDthjp xUFyj;Jf;F xU ePjp...
(kNdhd;kzpak; Re;judhH)  
vdf;Fr; rupahf epidT njupahj (Kfk; kl;Lk; kdj; jpiuapy; kq;fyhfj; njupe;j) tajpy; kiwe;j Mdhy; fhybf; nfhYrpd; Xir kl;Lk; ,d;Dk; vd; fhjpy; ed;whf xypj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; vd; jhahupd; nghd;dbfSf;;Fk; vd;idg; gbf;f itj;J Mshf;fpa mUikj; je;ijahupd; jpUtbf;fSf;Fk;  ,e;j Ehy; vdJ gilay;. 
vd;Diu
vdJ mUik kfd; ,uhNre;jpud; -kUkfs; ,e;Jkjp ,UtUk; mz;ikapy; ntw;wpfukhfTk; czHTG+HtkhfTk; nra;J nfhz;l jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzk; ehd; vjpHghHj;jijtpl gyuJ ftdj;ij <Hj;Js;sJ. ,uz;nlhU jpUkzq;fs; Vw;fdNt GNuhfpjH ,y;yhJ eilngw;wpUe;jhYk; vd; tPl;Lj; jpUkzk; rpy tl;lhuq;fspy; gyuJ GUtq;fis caHjpAs;sJ. 
,d;W ehk; fhZk; itjPf Kiwj; jpUkzq;fs; ,UEhW Mz;LfSf;F  Kd;dNu jkpofj;jpy; tp[aefu kd;dHfs; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; tof;Ff;F te;jJ. ngUk;ghYk; GNuhfpjHfs; tUtha; fUjpNa ,g;gbahd jpUkzq;fis nra;a Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. mg;gbj; jpUkzq;fis nra;J itj;j GNuhfpjHfs; gpuhkz r%fj;jpdhy; xJf;fp itf;fg; gl;lhHfs;. 
jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzk; kpfTk; gioikahdJ. rq;f fhyk; njhl;L tUtJ. ,ilf; fhyj;jpy; gpw nkhop> gz;ghl;Lg; gil vLg;ghy; mg;gbahd jpUkzq;fs; tof;nfhope;J Nghapw;W. ,Ue;Jk; mJ Kw;whf tof;nfhope;J Nghftpy;iy. rq;f fhyj;jpy; ney;Yk; G+Tk; Jhtp tho;j;Jk; tof;fk; itjPfj; jpUkzq;fspy; kQ;rs; muprpiaj; Jhtp tho;j;Jtjhf khwpaJ. jkpofj;jpy; ,d;W $l GNuhfpjHfs; ,y;yhj  jpUkzq;fs; fpuhkg; Gwq;fspYk;> Fwpg;gpl;l rpy tl;lhu kf;fsplKk; njhlHe;J ,lk;ngw;W tUfpwJ.  
,e;j Ehw;whz;bd; eLtpy; ngupahH> kiwkiy mbfs;>  ghujpjhrd;> mz;zh Nghd;NwhH jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzq;fis kf;fspil  Cf;fptpj;jjd; tpisthf tlnkhop ke;jpuq;fs;> GNuhfpjHfs; ,y;yhj jpUkzq;fs; gue;Jgl;l mstpy; eilngw;W tUfpd;wd.  
1967y; jkpo;ehl;bd; Ml;rp mjpfhuj;ij  mwpQH mz;zhtpd; jiyikapyhd jp.K.f. ifg;gw;wpajd; tpisthf Rakupahijj; jpUkzq;fs; rl;lg;gb mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;lJ. 
jpUkz tpohtpy; ehd; tuNtw;Giu epfo;j;jpaNghJ vdJ jpUkzNk 37 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH ,uz;L khiy> xU nrhw;nghopthsNuhL kpf vspa Kiwapy; ele;Njwpaijf; Fwpg;gpl;Nld;. 
mg;NghJ ehd; kl;Lk; my;yhJ ez;gHfs;  <oNte;jd;> e.ngh.,uhrJiu Nghd;NwhUk; rPHjpUj;jj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;. gpd;dhy; Nf.V. kNfe;jpud;> fdf kNdhfud; Nghd;NwhUk; mt;thNw jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;.  
mz;ikapy; jkpoPo tpLjiyg; Gypfs; ,af;fj;jpd; murpay; nghWg;ghsH jkpo;r;nry;td; Njrpaj; jiytH gpughfud; jiyikapy; jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lJ ehNsLfspy; nra;jpahf  te;jJ. 
jkpo;ehl;by; ngupahH> ghujpjhrd;> mz;zh Nghd;NwhH Njhw;Wtpj;j jpuhtpl kWkyHr;rp gFj;jwpT rpe;jidfNs tlnkhop ke;jpuk;> GNuhfpjH ,y;yhj jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzq;fis nra;J nfhs;sj; Jhz;L NfhyhapUe;jd. Kjy; Rakupahijj; jpUkzk; ngupahH jiyikapy; 28-05-1928y; mUg;Gf; Nfhl;ilf;F mUNfAs;s Rf;fpyej;jk; vd;Dk; Cupy; ,lk;ngw;wJ. mj;jpUkz tpohtpy; kiwe;j Kj;jkpo;f; fhtyH fp.M.ng. tpRtehjk;> gl;Lf;Nfhl;il mofpup MfpNahUk;  fye;J nfhz;L rpwg;gpj;jhHfs;. 
jkpo;ehl;by; rPHjpUj;jj; jpUkzq;fs; My;Nghy; jisj;J mWFNghy; NtNuhbg; gy;fpg; ngUfp tsHe;J nfhz;bUe;j NghJk;  vd;d fhuzj;jhNyh jkpoPoj;jpy; me;jg; Nghf;F ePbf;ftpy;iy. mj;jp G+j;jhw;Nghy; mq;nfhd;W ,q;nfhd;whf rpy jpUkzq;fs; kl;LNk ele;jd.  
vdJ tPl;by; ,jw;F Kd;dH vdJ gps;isfs; nra;J nfhz;l jpUkzq;fs;  
itjPfj; jpUkzq;fshfNt mike;jd. mjw;Fg; gy fhuzq;fs; cz;L. Kjypy; toiknad;w ngaupy; CNuhL xj;Jg;Nghf Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk;. kw;wJ jpUkz;k; vd;gJ ,uz;L tPl;lhuJ rk;kjj;JlDk; xj;Jiog;GlDk; elf;f Ntz;ba kq;fsfukhd epfo;r;rp. mjpy; fUj;J Ntw;Wik vof;$lhJ vd;w Kd;rhf;fpuij fhuzkhf rPHjpUj;jj; jpUkzk; gw;wpNa rpe;jpf;ftpy;iy.
mg;gbnad;why; ,uhNre;jpud; -,e;Jkjp  jpUkzk; kl;Lk; jkpoH jpUkzkhf mike;jJ vg;gb? 
cz;ik vd;dntd;why; ehd; Nfl;fhkNyNa vdJ kfd; jhdhf ,g;gbnahU jpUkzj;ij nra;a Kd;te;jhH. ey;yfhykhf ngz; tPl;lhUk; mjid  kfpo;r;rpAld;  tuNtw;W xg;GjYk; xj;Jiog;Gk; ey;fpdhHfs;.  
mg;gh topapy; jhDk; jkpo;j; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;sNtz;Lk;  vd;w vz;zj;ij tpl itjPfj; jpUkzq;fs; eilngWk; Kiwfs;> rk;gpujhaq;fis Neupy; ghHj;J mit kdJf;Fg; gpbf;fhJ NghdJ ,e;jj; jkpo;kuGj; jpUkzj;Jf;F Kf;fpa fhuzkhf ,Ue;jJ. 
,e;jj; jpUkzj;Jf;F ahiu jiyik tfpf;f miof;fyhk; vd;W ehq;fs; Nahrpj;j NghJ vq;fs; fz;Zf;F Kd; te;J epd;wtH lhf;lH Mjp fzgjp NrhkRe;juk; mtHfNs. ,tuh mtuh vd;w Ngr;Nr votpy;iy. xUtiuNa epidj;Njhk; me;j xUtiuNa jiyik jhq;f mioj;Njhk;. mtUk; ve;j kWg;Gk; ,d;wp cld; jdJ xg;Gjiyj; je;J tpl;lhH. 
,e;j kztpohTf;F jiyik jhq;f lhf;lH Mjp fzgjp NrhkRe;juk; mtHfisj; NjHe;njLj;j fhuzq;fis ehd; vLj;Jr; nrhy;yj; Njitapy;iy vd;W epidf;fpNwd;. ,Ue;Jk; ,uz;nlhU thHj;ij mijg;gw;wpr; nrhy;y Ntz;Lk;. 
jkpoHfSf;F ,ilapy; njhopy; Jiwapy; ntw;wp fz;ltHfs; gyH ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. fy;tpj;Jiwapy; fiu fz;ltHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;>  Mdhy; r%f rpe;jidAs;stHfis> r%f czHTs;stHfis> jkpo; ,dg;gw;Ws;stHfis> jkpo;nkhopg; gw;Ws;stHfis ,d;iwa fhy fl;lj;jpYk; fhz;gJ kpfTk; mupjhFk;. 
ngUk;ghNyhH  jhd; cz;L jd; FLk;gk; cz;L vd;w rpW tl;lj;NjhL epd;W tpLfpwhHfs;. mtHfs; jhk; gpwe;j ,dj;ijg; gw;wpr; rpe;jpg;gjpy;iy. jk; nkhopiag; gw;wpr; rpe;jpg;gjpy;iy. gpwe;j kz;izg;gw;wpr; rpe;jpg;gjpy;iy. mit vf;NfL nfl;lhYk; nfl;Lg; Nghfl;Lk; vd;W ,Ue;J tpLfpwhHfs;.
,d;iwf;F Ik;gJ Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dH mur cj;jpNahfj;jpy; gy jkpoHfs; nfhbfl;b tho;e;jhHfs;. fpl;lj;jl;l vy;yh mur jpizf;fs> mikr;Rf;fspd; jiytHfshf> epue;jur; nrayhsHfshfj;  jkpoHfNs ,Ue;jhHfs;. Mdhy; mtHfspy; ahUNk Nritapy; ,Ue;j NghJk;rup> Nritapy; ,Ue;J ,iog;ghwpa gpd;dUk; rup jq;fsJ Neuj;ijAk; epidg;igAk; jkpopdj;jpd; Nkk;ghl;Lf;fhf> jkpo;nkhopapd; caHTf;fhf> Vd; rkaj;Jf;fhf NtDk;  nrytopf;ftpy;iy. ehd; mwpe;j mstpy; NrH fe;ijah itj;jpaehjd; xUtNu Njthug; ghly;ngw;w jpUf;NfjPRtu Myaj;ij GJg;gpg;gjw;F jdJ Neuk;> nghUs; ,uz;ilAk; nrytopj;jtH. filrpf; fhyj;jpy; xU rkaj; Jwtpahf tho;e;J kiwe;jtH. ,d;ndhUtH tTdpah khtl;l murhq;f mjpguhf ,Ue;j jpU. ,uhrJiu mtHfs;. ,tHfsJ nghJg; gzpia ed;wp mwpjNyhL ,e;j Neuj;jpy; epidj;Jg; ghHf;fpNwd;. 
nghJg; gzpiag; gw;wpa mf;fiwapd;ik ,d;Wk; njhlUfpwJ. nrd;w Mz;Lf; filrpapy; ehd; ntspehL NghapUe;Njd;. ehl;bd; ngaiur; nrhy;yyhk; vd;W epidf;fpNwd;. me;j ehL mT];jpNuypah. me;j ehl;Lf;F ,uz;L jiyKiwf;F Kd;gpd;dhfg; Gyk;ngaHe;j jkpoHfs; nry;tj;NjhLk;> nry;thf;NfhLk; mq;F tho;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; mtHfshy; jkpo; kf;fSf;Nfh my;yJ jkpo; ,dj;Jf;Nfh xU nrg;Gf;fhR$l gadpy;yhjthW jhKz;L jq;fs; kidtp gps;isfs; cz;L vd;w Nghf;fpy; tho;fpwhHfs;. mq;F ele;j khtPuH tpohtpw;F  Ik;gJ lhf;lHfSf;Ff; Fiwtpy;yhky; jdpj; jdp kly; vOjp mtHfSf;F miog;G mDg;gpNdhk;. nrhd;dhy; ek;g khl;BHfs;. mtHfspy; xUtH $l me;j miog;ig Vw;W  tpohTf;F tUif jutpy;iy!  
vjw;Fk; tpjp tpyf;Fz;L. xU rpyH tpLjiy czHNthL ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. mjpy; NguhrpupaH fpwp];b n[aul;zk; vypNarUk; mtuJ JiztpahH ,uhzp vypNarH Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftHfs;. NguhrpupaH jdJ vz;gjhtJ mfitapYk; jkpopd czHNthLk;> jkpo;nkhop czHNthLk; tho;fpwhH. mtUf;F cw;w Jizahf mtuJ JiztpahH ,Ue;J tUfpwhH. fw;whiuf; fhz;gJTk; ed;Nw mtH nrhy; Nfl;gJTk; ed;Nw vd;gjw;F ,zq;f ,e;j ,UtiuAk; nky;NghHd; efupy; Neupy; re;jpj;J mstshtpajpy; vdf;F kl;lw;w kfpo;r;rp.   ,uhzp vypNarH vdJ MrpupiaAk; $l vd;gjhy; gy Mz;Lfs; fopj;J mtiur; re;jpj;jjpy; vdf;F ,ul;bg;G kfpo;r;rp. 
lhf;lH Mjp fzgjp NrhkRe;juk; mtHfs; fhJk; fhJk; itj;jJNghy> Xirg;glhky; gy ey;y njhz;Lfisr; nra;J tUfpwhH. mijapl;L ehd; mjpfk; nrhy;y  Ntz;ba mtrpak; ,y;iy. mg;gbr; nrhy;y Kd;te;jhy; mJ mtUf;Nf rq;flkhf ,Uf;Fk;. jdp  kdpjdJ Nehiag; Nghf;Fk; itj;jpauhfg; gzpahw;WtNjhL jkpo; ,dj;jpd; Neha; jPHf;Fk; itj;jpauhfTk; ,Ue;J tUfpwhH. mtuJ gzp NkYk; njhlu Ntz;Lk;.
jpUf;FwNs jkpoHfsJ nghJkiw> mJNt jkpo;kf;fspd; tho;f;if topfhl;bahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; ehd; jplkhd ek;gpf;if itj;jpUf;fpNwd;. jpUf;Fwspy; nrhy;yhj nghUspy;iy. mjpy; ,y;yhj nghUspy;iy. xU Fws; xUtdplk; cs;s nry;tk; vg;gbahd nry;tkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;F ,yf;fzk; nrhy;fpwJ. 
CUzp ePH epiwe;jw;Nw> cyfthk;
Nguwpthsd; jpU
( Fws; 215) 
kw;wtHfSf;F cjTk; ngupa mwpthsdJ nry;tk; Cupd; eLNt cs;s ePH epiwe;j Fsk; kf;fSf;F vg;gb  cjTfpwNjh mJ Nghd;W ed;ik gaf;fty;yJ.  
,e;jf; Fwspy; Cupd; eLNt cs;s Fsj;ij NguwpthsdJ nry;tj;Jf;F xg;gpl;l ts;StH mLj;j Fwspy; (216tJ Fwspy;) cs;@upy; gOj;Jf; FYq;Fk; gokuj;NjhL xg;gpLfpwhH. gpwUf;F cjtpnra;J tho;gtd; ,lj;jpy; cs;s nry;tk; cs;@upy; gOj;j gokuk; kw;wtHfSf;Fg; gad; mspg;gJNghd;wJ vd;fpwhH.  
gad;kuk; cs;SHg; gOj;jw;why;> nry;tk;
gaDil ahd; fz;gbd;
                   (Fws; 216) 
,jw;Fk; Nkyhf lhf;lH mtHfs; jd;dhyhd jkpo;g; gzpiaAk; rkag; gzpiaAk; Mjp mUs;kiw kd;wj;ij epWtp mjd; Clhf ,dpJ nra;J tUfpwhH. caH jdpr; nrk;nkhopahd jkpo; nkhopia vd;idg;NghyNt mtUk;  kdjhu cskhu Nerpf;fpwhH. jpUf;Nfhtpy;fspy; Qhdrk;ge;jH nkr;rpg; Nghw;wpa rq;fkyp nre;jkpopy; kl;Lk; G+ir eilngw Ntz;Lk; vd;W ntspg;gilahff; $wptUfpwhH.  mJjhd; vd;idg; Nghd;w jkpo; czHthsHfsJ MirAk; MFk;.  
,uz;lhtJ fhuzk;. jkpoHfSila tho;tpaypy; vq;fs;  jha;nkhopahd jkpo;nkhopf;Nf rPUk; rpwg;Gk;> NgUk; ,lKk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. njhl;by; njhlq;fp fl;by; tiu> tPL njhlq;fp fhLtiu jkpo;nkhopf;F Vw;wk; nfhLg;gjd; %yNk vq;fis ehq;fs; caHj;jpf; nfhs;s KbAk;. vg;NghJ nre;jkpio xJf;fptpl;L gpwnkhopfSf;F ,lk; nfhLf;fpNwhNkh> mJ ve;j nkhopnad;whYk; rup>  mg;NghJ ehq;fs; vq;fisNa jho;j;jpf; nfhs;fpNwhk; vd;gJ vdJ epiyg;ghlhFk;. 
,d;W jkpo;nkhopf;Fr; rpwg;gplk; nfhLf;fj; jkpoHfs; jaq;Ftjw;F ehDhW Mz;Lfhy mbik tho;Tk;> mjdhy; Vw;gl;l jho;T kdg;ghd;ikAk; fhuzkhFk;>  
,d;W cyfpy; Ngrg;gLk; gioa nkhopfshd fpNuf;fk;> rPdk;> ,yj;jpd;> rk];fpUjk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; jkpo;nkhopAk; xd;W. jkpo; nkhopf;Fs;s ,yf;fpa ,yf;fzr; rpwg;G NtW ve;j nkhopf;Fk; fpilahJ. jkpopy; ,d;Ws;s kpfg; gioa Ehy; njhy;fhg;gpak;. vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; ,e;j %d;Wf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; nrhy;Yk; njhy;fhg;gpak; Nghd;w ,yf;fz Ehy; NtW ve;j nkhopapYk; fpilahJ. Vd; jkpopy; $l njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij nty;Yk; ,yf;fz Ehnyhd;W ,Jfhytiu ve;j ,yf;fz  MrpupauhYk; gilf;fg;gltpy;iy! 
rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fshd vl;Lj;njhif gj;Jg;ghl;by; kl;Lk; 2381; ghly;fs;; rpd;dJk; ngupaJkhf ,Uf;fpd;wd. gj;Jg;ghl;L 8552 tupfisAk;> vl;Lj;njhif 2426 jdpepiyr; nra;As;fisAk; jd;dfj;Nj nfhz;Ls;sd. ,tw;iwg; ghba GytHfspd; njhif 575. ,jpy; ngaH njupe;J GytHfs; vz;zpf;if 473. ngaH njupahj GytHfsJ njhif 102. fgpyH vd;w GytH khj;jpuk; 235 ghly;fs; ghbAs;shH.
vl;Lj;njhif> gj;Jg;ghl;NlhL rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;J gjpnzd; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fisAk; NrHj;jhy; (3251 ghly;fs;) nkhj;jg; ghly;fspd; vz;zpf;if 5>632 Mf caHfpwJ. ,j;jifa ePz;l ,yf;fpa ,yf;fz tuyhWk; tsKk; cyfpy; NtW ve;jnkhopf;Fk; ,y;iy. Md fhuzj;jpdhy; jkpo;j; nja;t tzf;fk; ghba NguhrpupaH kNdhd;kzpak; Re;juk;gps;is mtHfs; "Mupak;Nghy; cyf tof;F mope;njhope;J rpijahTd;; rPupsikj; jpwk;tpae;J nray;kwe;J tho;j;JJNk" vd;W jkpo;j; jhiag; Nghw;WfpwhH.  
,e;jpahtpy; ,d;W Ngrg;gLk; nkhopfspy; kf;fs; vz;zpf;ifapy; jkpo; nkhop Ie;jhtJ ,lj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. kpff; $Ljyhf ,e;jp nkhop NgRNthH Ehw;wpy; 39 tpOf;fhlhfTk;> mjw;F mLj;jjhf ,uz;lhtJ ,lj;jpy; tq;fhsp nkhop NgRNthH 8 tpOf;fhlhfTk;> %d;whtjhf njYq;F nkhop NgRNthH 7.7 tpOf;fhlhfTk;> mjw;F mLj;jjhf ehd;fhtJ ,lj;jpy; kuhj;jp nkhop NgRNthH vz;zpf;if 7 tpOf;fhlhfTk;>  Ie;jhtJ ,lj;jpy; jkpo;nkhop NgRNthH vz;zpf;if 6.2 tpOf;fhlhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ. mjhtJ fpl;lj;jl;l 6 Nfhb jkpoHfs; ,e;jpa cgfz;lj;jpy; tho;fpwhHfs;. 
,j;jid rpwg;G tha;e;j nkhopapd; nrhe;jf;fhuHfs; ehk;. vdNt jkpoH tPl;Lj; jpUkzq;fs; jkpo; nkhopapNyNa eilngWjy; Ntz;Lk;. vq;fSf;Fg; Gupahj> mJTk; tof;nfhope;j xU nkhopapy; jpUkzk; eilngWtij ehk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;s KbahJ. mJ NghyNt jP tyk; tUjy;> mk;kp kpjpj;jy;> mUe;jjp ghHj;jy; Nghd;w gpw gz;ghl;Lr; rlq;FfisAk; ehk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $lhJ. jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzk; vd;gJ jkpopy; kl;Lk; eilngWk; jpUkzk; kl;Lk; my;y. itjPf rlq;Ffs; ,y;yhj jpUkzkhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ jkpo;j; jpUkzk; my;y jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzkhf tpsq;f Ntz;Lk;. 
xt;nthUtDf;Fk; mtidg; gj;Jkhjk; tapw;wpy; Rke;J ngw;nwLj;Jg; ghYhl;b> rPuhl;b> jhyhl;b> mk;Gyp fhl;b tsHj;j jhNa nja;tj;jpd; ,lj;jpy; itj;Jg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwhs;.  
xUtDf;F mLj;j tPl;Lj; jha; vt;tsTjhd;  mofhdtuhf ,Ue;jhYk; mtDf;F mts; jhahf khl;lhs;. jhahfTk; KbahJ. mJ NghyNt jkpoHfSf;F jkpNo jhahths;. jpUkz tPLfspy; kl;Lky;y jpUf;Nfhtpy;fspYk; jkpNo xypf;fNtz;Lk;. ,e;j epiy ,g;NghJ ,y;iy. Mdhy; ,e;j epiy khwNtz;Lk;. khw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. 
jkpoHfs; jkpo;nkhopapd; rpwg;Gj; njupahj fhuzj;jhy; Ntw;W nkhopfSf;F Vw;wk; nfhLf;fpwhHfs;. EhW Mz;LfSf;F Kd; tho;e;j ghujpahH- 
Nrud; jk;gp rpyk;G ,irj;jJk;
   nja;t ts;Std; thd;kiw nra;jJk;

ghupy; ey;ypirg; ghz;ba NrhoHfs;

   ghuspj;J jHkk; tsHj;jJk;

md;d ahTk; mwpe;jpyH ghujH

   Mq;fpyk; gapy; gs;spAl; NghfpdH
(ghujpahH ghly;fs; - Rarupij) 
vd;W ftiyNahL ghbdhH. ,d;W$l ghujpahupd; ftiyfs; njhlHfijahfNt ,Uf;fpwJ. vj;jid jkpoHfs; tPl;by; Nrud; jk;gp ,irj;j rpyg;gjpfhuk; ,Uf;fpwJ? vj;jid jkpoHfs; tPl;by; nja;t ts;Std; nra;j thd;kiw ,Uf;fpwJ? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;fhd gjpiy cq;fs; kdl;rhl;rpf;Nf tpl;L tpLfpNwd;. 
jkpo;nkhop cz;ikapNyNa ,dpikahd nkhopah vd;w re;Njfk; rpyUf;F ,Uf;fpwJ. mtutUf;Fk; mtutuJ nkhop ,dpikahfNt ,Uf;Fk;. jkpo;nkhop jkpoUf;F ,dpikahf ,Ug;gJ Nghy; rPdnkhop rPdHfSf;F ,dpikahf ,Uf;Fk; my;yth? vd;W Nfl;fpwtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. ,g;gbahd re;Njfj;jpw;F> Nfs;tpf;F kfhftp ghujpahH vg;NghNjh gjpy; ,Wj;jp ,Uf;fpwhH. 
ghujpahUf;F mtuJ jha;nkhopahd jkpiotpl tlnkhop njupe;jpUe;jJ. GJr;Nrupapy; gy Mz;L tho;e;jjhy; mtUf;F gpuhd;R nkhop njupe;jpUe;jJ. fhrp rHtfyhrhiyapy; Mrpupauhfg; gzpahw;wpaNghJ ,e;jp nkhop gbf;Fk; tha;g;Gf; fpl;baJ. ,it vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk;  Nkyhf Mq;fpy nkhopapy; Gyik ,Ue;jJ. vdNt gy nkhop njupe;j ghujpahH-
"ehk; mwpe;j nkhopfspNy jkpo;nkhopNghy; ,dpjhtJ vq;Fk; fhNzhk;" vd;W mWjpapl;Lf; $wpapUf;fpwhH. 
jkpo; ,dpikahd nkhop vd;w fhuzj;jhNyNa ",Ue;jkpNo cd;dhy; ,Ue;Njd;> ck;gH tpUe;jkpo;jk;  vd;whYk; Ntz;Nld;" vd;W jkpo;tpL JhJg; GytH ghbdhH. fy;tpapy; ngupa fk;gd; "vd;WKs;s njd;jkpo;" vd;W rpwg;gpj;Js;shH. 
jkpOf;F cs;s milnkhopfs; Nghy; NtW ve;j nkhopf;Fk;> tlnkhop cl;gl> ,y;iy. nre;jkpo;> rq;fkyp nre;jkpo;> ,irkyp jkpo;>  ige;jkpo;> jPe;jkpo;> tz;lkpo;> xz;lkpo;> jz;lkpo;> jz;zhH jkpo;> ew;wkpo;>  G+e;jkpo;> %thj;jkpo;> NjkU jkpo;> Qhdj;jkpo;>  Kj;jkpo;........ ,g;gb mbf;fpf; nfhz;L Nghfyhk;.  
jpUkz tpohtpy; ehd; mtruj;jpy; vOjp toq;fpa ,e;jj; jkpoH jpUkzk; vd;w rpW Ehiyj; jUkhW gy ez;gHfs; Nfl;l tz;zk; cs;shHfs;. nfhLg;gjw;F mjd; gbfs; vd;dplk; ,y;iy. vd;dplk; kl;Lky;y mjid mr;Rr; nra;J nfhLj;j lhf;lH NrhkRe;juk; mtHfsplNk ,y;iy. vdNt gyuJ Miria epiwNtw;w mjid ey;y Kiwapy; kPs; gjpg;Gr; nra;jpUf;fpNwhk;.  
vjidAk; Rk;kh nfhLj;jhy; mjid thq;FgtUf;F mjd; ngWkjp njupa epahak; ,y;iy vd;W epidf;fpwtd; ehd;. vdNt ,e;j EhYf;F xU tpiyia epHzapj;Js;Nshk;. ,jpy;  ,yhgk; fpilj;jhy; mJ jkpoH GdH tho;Tf; fof epjpf;Fr; NrHg;gpf;fg;gLk;. 
,e;j Ehiy ehd; tpupj;J vOj Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; mjid <oehL gjpg;gf ntspaPlhf ntspapl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk; <oehL fpoik Vl;bd; MrpupaH jpU. guNkRtud; mtHfsJ tpUg;gkhFk;. mtH Nfl;lthW tpupj;J vOjyhk; vd;W cl;fhUk;NghJ NtW Nrhypfs; FWf;Nf te;J tpLfpd;wd. NeuKk; fhyKk; tUk;NghJ tpupj;J vOj  ,Uf;fpNwd;.  jw;Nghijf;F Ehypy;  rpw   khw;wq;fs; kl;Lk; nra;Js;Nsd;. 'capNu jkpNo tzf;fk;' vd;w gFjp ehd; NtnwhU re;jHg;gj;jpy; vOjp 'ek;ehL' gj;jpupifapy; ntspte;j fl;LiuahFk;.  
"vd;Diu" ePz;L tpl;lJ. Mdhy; fhuzj;NjhLjhd; ePz;l  Kd;Diu  vOjpAs;Nsd;. ,e;j Ehy; Clhfj;  jkpo;g; gz;ghl;bd; rpwg;igAk;> jkpo; nkhopapd; ePHikiaAk;> jkpo; kiwapd; mUikiaAk; XusthtJ jkpo; kf;fs; mwpe;J nfhz;L> mtw;iwg; Nghw;wpg; gad;ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;w MHtj;ij rw;NwDk; Jhz;l cjtpapUe;jhy; ehd; nkj;j kfpo;r;rp milNtd;.  
vdJ kfdpd; jpUkzj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp Rtp]; ehl;ilr; NrHe;j  ,ukzd; jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;Ls;shH. nrd;w Mz;L ,Wjpapy; ele;j ,j;jpUkzj;Jf;F Mapuk; jkpoHfs; tUif je;J rpwg;gpj;jpUe;jhHfs;. ,j; jpUkzj;jpd; NghJ ehd; vOjpa 'jkpoH jpUkzk;" vd;w Ehy; mofhfg; gjpg;gpj;J ntspaplg;gl;lJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,uhrd;> ,ukzd; Nghy; NkYk; ,isNahHfs; jkpo; kuGj; jpUkzq;fisr; nra;J jkpoH gz;ghl;ilf; fl;bf; fhf;f Kd;tuNtz;Lk;. tzf;fk;.

ef;fPud;
fdlh
gq;Fdp  23> 2000
 
 

 
nghUslf;fk; 
 

1. nghw;fhyk;                                 gf;fk; 11 
2. rq;ffhy ,yf;fpaq;fs;                        gf;fk; 16     
3. xy;fhg; Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;                    gf;fk; 19 
4. nghJ kiw                                 gf;fk; 29 
5. mfj;Jiw Gwj;Jiw ,yf;fzk;                 gf;fk; 35 
6. fstpay; - fw;gpay;                           gf;fk; 41 
7. rq;f fhyj;  jpUkzk;                         gf;fk; 44     
8.  jpUkz cwT Kiw                         gf;fk; 52 
9.  itjPfj; jpUkzj;jpd; Njhw;wk                 gf;fk; 55 
10. jkpNo capNu tzf;fk;                       gf;fk; 60  
11. ,it ,dpait                             gf;fk; 67 
12. gpd;,izg;G                                gf;fk; 74




jkpoH jpUkzk;
 
1. nghw;fhyk; 
cyf tuyhw;iwg; gbg;gtHfs; xt;nthU ,dj;Jf;Fk; xt;nthU nghw;fhyk; ,Ue;jpUg;gij mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. 
Gjpa cyf ehfuPfj;jpd; njhl;by; vd tHzpf;fg;gLk; fpNuf;fHfSf;F fp.K. 7k; Ehw;whz;L njhlf;fk; fp.K. 4k; Ehw;whz;L tiuapyhd fhyk; nghw;fhykhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ.  
cyfk;  ke;jpuk;> je;jpuk; khak; epiwe;j rlg;nghUs; vd;w khiaapy; ,Ue;J tpLgl;L cyfj; Njhw;wk;> tsHr;rp gw;wp mwptpay; mbg;gilapy; Muha Kw;gl;l ngUik fpNuf;fHfisNa rhUk;. mwptpay; rhHe;j vy;yhj;JiwfspYk; fpNuf;fHfsJ if tz;zj;ijAk; fiy tz;zj;ijAk; fhzyhk;.  
kdpjd; flTshy; gilf;fg;gl;ltd; vd;w vz;zj;ij khw;wp flTisj; jdJ cUtj;jpy; gilf;f Muk;gpj;jtHfSk; fpNuf;fHfNs. cyfk; cl;gl vy;yhtw;iwAk; vz;zq;fshfTk; (concepts)  cUtq;fshfTk; (figures)  fpNuf;fHfs; ghHj;jhHfs;.  
,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpNyNa Gfo;ngw;w jj;Jt Qhdpfshd Njy;]; (Thales) ( fp.K 640-546)>  mwpT Mrhd; Nrhf;ful;b]; (Socrates - fp.K. 469-399)  gpshl;Nlh mup];Nuhl;ly; (Aristotle - fp.K 384-322)> Nghd;wtHfs; Njhd;wpdhHfs;. ( Plato-fp.K. 427-347)
"tuyhw;wpd; je;ij" ("Father of History”)  vd miof;fg;gLk; n`uNlhu]; (Herodotus)> nrhw;nghopthsH  nlnkhjPd]; (Demosthenes) (fp.K 384-322)> "xt;nthU Neha;f;Fk; ,aw;ifahd fhuzk; cz;L" (”every illness has a natural cause”) vd;W $wpa kUj;Jtj;jpd; je;ij ("Father of Medicine”)  vd;W Nghw;wg;gl;l fpg;NghfpNwl;]; (Hippocrates - fpK 460-377) kfjPd]; (Magathenes) ,Nj fhyj;ijj; NrHe;jtHfs;jhd;. fzpj tpw;gd;dHfshd igj;Njhfu]; (Pythagoras) > ,Fypl; (Euclid), MHfpkpb]; (Archimedes) Nghd;wtHfs; tho;e;j fhyKk; ,Jjhd;.  
vfpg;J> ghurPfk;> tl Nkw;F ,e;jpah ,tw;wpd; kPJ gilnaLj;J ntw;wp fz;l kfh mnyf;rhe;jH (Alexander the Great)  fhyKk; ,Jjhd;. kfh mnyf;rhe;jupd; MrpupaH mup];Nuhl;ly; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj; jf;fJ.  
,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; vOjg;gl;l ngsjPfk;> Ntjpay;> jj;Jtk;> fzpjk;> kUj;Jtk;> ,yf;fpak;> rkak;>  ,ir> ehlfk;> rpw;gk;> Xtpak; rk;ke;jkhd Ehy;fis nkhopngaHj;Jg; gbj;jjpdhNyNa INuhg;gh mwpahik vd;w ,Uz;l fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;J (Dark Age)  mwpTlik  epiwe;j ehfupf cyfj;Jf;F (fp.gp. 4tJ - 11tJ Ehw;whz;L) fhyb vLj;J itf;f Kbe;jJ.  
INuhg;gpa nkhopfspd; mupr;Rtb fpNuf;f nkhopapypUe;J rpwpa khWjYld; cUthf;fg; gl;ljhFk;. Mq;fpyj;jpy; cs;s gy fiyr;nrhw;fs; (democracy,  aristocracy, psychology) fpNuf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J Neubahf xypkhw;wk; nra;ag;gl;litahFk;.  
Nkw;$wpatw;wpypUe;J cyf ehfupf tsHr;rpf;F fpNuf;fHfsJ gq;fspg;ig XusT njupe;J nfhs;syhk;. 
Mq;fpNyaiu vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; mtHfsJ nghw;fhyk; tpf;Nlhupah murpahupd; (1819-1901) 65 Mz;L fhy ePz;l Ml;rpf; fhyk; (1837-1901)vd;W nrhy;yyhk;. gpupj;jhdpahtpd; fly; fle;j rhk;uh[;ak; ,tuJ fhyj;jpNyNa tYg;ngw;wJ. ,e;jpahtpd; rf;futHj;jpdpahf 26 Mz;Lfs; (1976-1901)muR fl;bypy; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhH. gpupj;jhdpahtpd; njhopw;Gul;rp ,tuJ fhyj;jpNyNa Vw;gl;lJ. mwptpay;> NghH> nghUshjhuk;> fiy> ,yf;fpaj; Jiw Nghd;w vy;yhj; JiwfspYk;  gpupj;jhdpah nfhb fl;bg;gwe;jJ. cyf Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpd; nkhj;j cUtkhf ,Ue;j  gpupj;jhdpah R+upad; m];jkpf;fhj ehL vd;W tHzpf;fg; gl;lJ.
jkpopdj;ijg; nghWj;jstpy; rq;f fhyNk jkpoHfsJ nghw;fhyk; vdg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. jkpoHfsJ ePz;l fhy tuyhw;iw ca;j;J czHe;J Muha;gtHfs; ,e;j cz;ikia vspjpy; xg;Gf; nfhs;thHfs;. 
rq;ffhyj;jpy;  Ml;rp Gupe;j  murHfNs jkpo; kd;dHfshf tpsq;fpdhHfs;. mtHfs; kl;Lky;y mtHfsJ ngaHfSk; Jha jkpopy; ,Ue;jd.  
rq;fg; GytHfshy; gilf;fg; gl;l vl;Lj;njhif> gj;Jg; ghl;L Ehy;fSk;> rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; vOe;j gjpnzd; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fs; jkpoHfsJ ehfupfr; rpwg;Gf;Fk;> fiy> gz;ghl;bw;Fk;> ,aw;ifNahL ,ire;j tho;Tf;Fk; fl;baq; $Wfpd;wd. 
rq;f fhyj;jpy; gpw;fhyj;jpy; gpwnkhopg; gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;ghy; vOe;j rhjp> rka> NtWghLfs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ,d;Dk; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; mikg;G uPjpahd rkak; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Nga;> gprhR> ke;jpu je;jpuk;> rFdk;> Nky; cyfq;fs;> fPo; cyfq;fs;> eufk;> nrhHf;fk; Nghd;w %lek;gpf;iffs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. nghJ kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ,e;j ek;gpf;iffs; ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;. Mdhy; gbj;jtHfs; kj;jpapy; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.  
NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fis r%fj;jpd; gy gbfspYk; ,Ue;j GytHfs; gilj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. Gtp Mz;l kd;dHfs; njhlf;fk; $ythzpfHfs;  <whf ftp ghbAs;shHfs;. MltUk; ngz;bUk;> me;jzUk;> tzpfUk;> FwtDk; Fwj;jpAk; vd;W gy;NtWgl;l GytHfs; ghly;fs; ghbAs;shHfs;. rq;fg; GytHfspd; nkhj;j vz;zpf;if 500f;Fk; mjpfkhFk;. NtW ve;j ehl;bYk; fhzhjthW ngz;ghy; GytHfs; kl;Lk; 50f;Fk; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. ,J rq;f fhyj;jpy; Mz;fisg; NghyNt ngz;fSk; xj;j fy;tpfw;W xj;j cupikNahL tho;e;jpUe;j caHe;j tho;f;ifKiwiaf; fhl;LfpwJ. 
"cw;Wop cjtpAk; cWnghUs; nfhLj;Jk;
gpw;iw epiyahJ fw;wy; ed;Nw"
 
vd;W ghba Mupag;gil fle;j ghz;bad; neLQ;nropad;>  
"ahd; thOk; ehSk; gz;zd; thopa"  
vd;W ghba  FsKw;wj;Jj;JQ;rpa fps;sptstd;>  
"gpr;ir GfpDk; fw;f ed;Nw"  
vd;W ghba mjptPuuhk ghz;bad;>
"cz;lhyk;k ,t;Tyfk;"  
cl;gl gupghlypy; gjpide;J ghly;fisg; ghba ,sk;ngUtOjp>   
gilg;Gg; gy gilj;J gyNuhL cz;Zk;
cilg;gLk;  nry;tuhapDk;> ,ilg;glf;

FW FW ele;J> rpWif ePl;b......
 
vd;W njhlq;Fk; Gwg;ghliyg; ghba ghz;bad; mwpTilek;gp>   ghiy ghba ngUq;fLq;Nfh> fypj;njhifapy; Ky;iyf;fypapd; ,ay;igg; gjpNdO ghly;fspy; eakhfj; jPl;ba Nrhod; ey;YUj;jd; ,tHfs; vy;NyhUk; Gtp Mz;l muruhtH.  
rq;fg; GytHfshd fbaYhH cUj;jpuq; fz;zdhH> ciwA+H KlNkhrpahH> fgpyH> ef;fPuH> guzH Nghd;NwhH me;jzuhtH. 
kJiu mWit thzpfd; ,sNtl;ldhH> $ythzpfd; rPj;jiyr; rhj;jdhH Nghd;NwhH tzpfg; ngUkf;fs; MtH.  
Mjpke;jpahH> G+jg;ghz;badpd; murpahH ngUq;Nfhg;ngz;L murFyj;jpy; gpwe;j ftpaurpfs; MtH.  
mjpakhd; ney;ypf; fdp <e;j mtdJ muritg; GytH xsitahH> fhf;ifghbdpahH> xf;$H khrhj;jpahH> fhkf;fz;zpahH> Nghd;NwhH ngz;ghy; GytHfspy; rpyuhtH.
irt rkaj;ijr; rhHe;j ef;fPuH> Gj;jrkaj;ijr; NrHe;j ,sk;NghjpahH> rkz kjj;ijr; rhHe;j cNyhr;rdhH ,yf;fpak; gilj;Js;shHfs;.  
,q;Nf xd;iwf; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. rq;fg; ghly;fisg; ghba GytHfs; xj;j fhyj;jtNuh my;yJ Xuplj;jtNuh my;y. fp.K. ehEhW Mz;Lfs; njhlq;fp fp.gp. Kjy; Ehw;whz;L fhy ,ilntspapy; tho;e;j GytHfs; ,g;ghly;fisg; ghbajhfj; njupfpwJ. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhky; ghba fhyk; NtW gpd;dH mg;ghly;fs; njhFf;fg; gl;l fhyk; Ntwhf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwJ. kpfr; rpwe;j ghly;fNs njhFf;fg; gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mg;gbj; njhFf;fg; glhJ tpLgl;l ghly;fs; Mapuf;fzf;fpy; ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. mitnay;yhk; fhynts;sj;jpy; mope;J Nghapd. Vd; Kjy; rq;fk;> ,ilr; rq;f fhyj;jpy; vOjg;gl;l gy Ehy;fSk; ,d;W ,y;iy.  


2. rq;ffhy ,yf;fpaq;fs; 
vl;Lj;njhif> gj;Jg; ghl;L> gjpnzd; fPo;f;fzf;F ,itNa rq;f fhy> rq;fk; kUtpa fhy ,yf;fpaq;fs; vd NkNy $wpNdhk;. 
vl;Lj;njhif Ehy;fs; vitnait vd;gijf; Fwpf;f xU gok; ntz;ghg; ghly; cs;sJ. me;jg; ghly; ,J. 
ew;wpiz ey;y FWe;njhif Iq;FWEhW
xj;j gjpw;Wg;gj;J Xq;F gupghly;

fw;wwpe;jhH Nghw;Wk; fypNahL mfk;Gwk; vd;W

,j;jpwj;J vl;;Lj; njhif.
 
,tw;Ws; Iq;FWEhW> FWe;njhif> ew;wpiz> mfehEhW> fypj;njhif mfg;nghUs; gw;wpad. GwehDhWk;> gjpw;Wg; gj;Jk; Gwg;nghUs; Ehy;fshFk;. nkhj;jk; 2426 jdpepiyr; nra;As;fis vl;Lj;njhif nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,e;j vl;bDs; mfehDhWk; GwehDhWk; jkpoHfsJ mftho;f;ifapidAk; Gwtho;f;ifapidAk; glk;gpbj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. gz;ila jkpoHfspd; tho;f;if Kiwia ,e;jg; ghly;fspd; %yk; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ gy mupa tuyhw;Wr; nra;jpfisAk; ,it cs;slf;fp ,Uf;fpd;wd.  
gj;Jg; ghl;L Ehy;fs; gpd;tUkhW. 
ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf KUfid itj;J ef;fPuH ghba (1) jpUKUfhw;Wg; gil. 
fhtpupf;F mizfl;ba fupfhy; Nrhoidg; ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J  Klj;jhkf; fz;zpahH ghba (2) nghUeuhw;Wg; gil. 
ey;ypaf; Nfhlid ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J  ej;jj;jdhH ghba (3) rpWghzhw;Wg; gil. 
Nrukd;dd; ,se;jpiuaidg; ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J cUj;jpuq;fz;zdhH ghba (4) ngUk;ghzhw;Wg; gil. 
ed;dd;Nra; ed;didg; ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J ngUq;nfsrpfdhH ghba (5) kiygLflhk; ($j;juhw;Wg; gil).  
Mupa murd; gpufj;jDf;F jkpo;nkhopiar;  nrhy;ypf; nfhLf;f fgpyH ghba (6) FwpQ;rpg; ghl;L. 
Mupag;gil fle;j neLQ;nropaid ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J eg;G+jdhH  ghba (7) Ky;iyg; ghl;L. 
fupfhyidg; ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J cUj;jpuq;fz;zdhH ghba (8) gl;bdg;ghiy. 
ghz;bad; neLQ;nropaidg; ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J ef;fPuH ghba  (9) neLey; thil. 
ghz;bad; neLQ;nropaidg; ghl;Lilj; jiytdhf itj;J khq;Fb kUjdhH ghba (10) kJiuf; fhQ;rp. 
,e;jg; gj;Jg; ghl;L Ehy;;fs; nkhj;jk; 8552 tupfisf; nfhz;lJ.  gj;Jg; ghl;L vl;Lj;njhif ,uz;ilAk; NrHj;J Vwj;jho 461 GytHfs; ,aw;wpAs;shHfs;. ,tHfspy; fgpyH> guzH> xsitahH> ef;fPuH Nghd;NwhH ngUk;ghd;ikahd ghly;fisg; ghbAs;shHfs;.  
rq;f fhyj;jpy; Cd; cz;gJk;> kJ mUe;JtJk;> guj;ijaNuhL ,d;Gw;wpUg;gJk; ,ay;ghd gz;ghlhf vz;zg;gl;lJ. mjpakhd; JQ;rpaNghJ mtdJ gpupit Mw;wKbahj xsitahH ,dpj; jdf;F ahH fs; jug;NghfpwhHfs; vd;w nghUs;glg; ghly; ghbAs;shH.
Mdhy; gjpndz; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fs; vOe;j rq;f fhyj;Jf;Fg; gpe;jpa rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; Cd; cz;gJ> fs; Fbg;gJ> guj;ijaH Nrupehbg; NghtJ kpf td;ikahff; fz;bf;fg; gLfpwJ. fzf;F vd;w nrhy; Ehiyf; Fwpg;gjhFk;.  
,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; jkpofj;jpy; fhYhd;wpa rkz> ngsj;j kjf; nfhs;iffspd; jhf;fq;fs;  fhuzkhfNt ,e;j khWjy; Vw;gl;ljhf ehk; nfhs;syhk;. ngsj;j kjk; nfhy;yhikia kl;Lk; tw;GWj;j rkzk; nfhy;yhik> Gyhy; cz;zhik ,uz;ilAk; fLikahf typAWj;jpaJ. mfpk;irf; Nfhl;ghL ngsj;jk; rkzk; ,uz;bd; mr;rhzpahf tpsq;fpaJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.  
,jdhy; rq;f fhyj;jpy; ghLnghUshff; nfhs;sg;gl;l mfj;Jiw> Gwj;JiwNahL mwj;JiwAk; NrHe;J nfhs;fpwJ. 
NkYk; gjpndz; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fspy;   tlnrhy; fyg;G rq;f fhyj;ij tpl mjpf tpOf;fhL cilajhf ,Ug;gijf; fhzf;$bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.  ,J rq;f fhyj;jpy; jiyfhl;ba  Mupa nkhop Mjpf;fk;> rkag; gz;ghl;Lf; Nfhl;ghLfs; rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;jpy; ed;whff; fhy;nfhs;sj; njhlq;fp tpl;lijf; fhl;LfpwJ.  
gjpndz; fPo;f;fzf;F Ehy;fs; vitnait vd;gjw;Fk; xU gok; ntz;ghg; ghly; cs;sJ. mJ ,J. 
ehyb ehd;kzp ehdhw;gJ Ie;jpizKg;
ghy;fLfq; Nfhit gonkhop - kh%yk;

,d;dpiynrhy; fhQ;rpNahL Vyhjp vd;gJhck;

ife;epiyAkhk; fPo;f; fzf;F.
 
,e;jg; ghlypy; jpUf;Fws; Kg;ghy; vdf; Fwpg;gplg; gLtJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. ,j; njhFg;gpy; Vwj;jho 3>250 nra;Al;fs; mlq;fpAs;sd.  ,tw;Ws; ehyb> ehd;kzpf;fbif> ,d;dh ehw;gJ> ,dpait ehw;gJ> jpupfLfk;> Vyhjp> KJnkhopf; fhQ;rp> Kg;ghy;> Mrhuf;Nfhit> gonkhop> rpWgQ;r %yk; Mfpa gjpndhd;Wk; mwnthOf;fk; gw;wpa ePjp Ehy;fshFk;. Ie;jpiz Ik;gJ> Ie;jpiz vOgJ> jpiznkhop Ik;gJ> jpiz khiy Ehw;iwk;gJ> ife;epiy> fhH ehw;gJ mfg;nghUs;gw;wpa Ehy;fshFk;.  
jpUf;Fws; rq;fk; kUtpa fhyj;J gjpndz;fzf;F Ehy;fspy; xd;whfr; NrHf;fgl;lhYk; fhyj;jhy; jpUf;Fws; njhd;ik tha;e;jJ. mJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ   kw;w vy;yh mwEhy;fisAk; tplf;  fUj;jhsj;jpYk;> nrhy; eaj;jpYk; caHe;J epw;fpwJ. jpUf;Fwspd; rpwg;ig jpUts;StH khiy vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. tuyhw;Wf; fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL Nehf;Fk;NghJ ts;Stupd; Fws; jkpo; vd;w nrhy; gad;gLj;jg;glh tpl;lhYk;  mJ jkpo;g; gz;ghl;Lf;Fk; ehfupfj;Jf;Fk;  tiutpyf;fzk; $wpa kiwEhy; vd;W nfhs;syhk;. ,ijapl;Lg; gpd;dH tpsf;fpf; $WNthk;. 
rq;f fhyg; GytHfs; tho;f;ifapd; cWjpg; nghUl;fs; %d;nwd nkhoptH. mitahtd mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk;. ,e;j cWjpg; nghUl;fs; %d;WNk jkpo; ,yf;fpag; gilg;Gf;F mbj;jskhf ,Ue;jd. jkpo;nkhopapy; ,d;W cs;s kpfj; njhd;ikahd ,yf;fzf;fz Ehyhd njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; MrpupaH njhy;fhg;gpaH ,e;j cWjpg; nghUl;fisg;gw;wp kpf tpupthf vOjpapUf;fpwhH. 
njhy;fhg;gpaiug; gpd;gw;wp  jpUts;StH ,e;j %d;W cWjpg; nghUl;fisAk; mZitg; gpse;J vOfliyg; GFj;Jkhg; Nghy; Ehw;wpKg;gJ %d;W mjpfhuq;fspy;> mjpfhuj;Jf;Fg; gj;Jf; Fws; tPjk; Mapuj;J Kd;Dhw;W Kg;gJ Fwl;ghf;fspy;  vLj;Jr; nrhy;ypapUf;fpwhH.  
jkpo;kfs; vd  kfhftp ghujpahuhy; Nghw;wg;gl;l xsitahH mNj %d;W cWjpg;nghUl;fis %d;Nw %d;W mbfspy; RUq;fr; nrhy;yp tpsq;f itg;ghH. ghly; ,J. 
<jy; mwk;> jPtpid ePf;fp <l;ly; nghUs;
fhjyH ,UtH fUj;njhUkpj;J
MjuT gl;lJ ,d;gk;.  
mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk; vd;w %d;wpDs;Sk; ,d;gg; gFjpNa (,y;ywtho;f;if) kdpj tho;;f;ifapd; capHehbahf tpsq;FfpwJ. ,d;gk; gw;wpNa kdpjd; nghUisj; NjLfpwhd;. nghUs; nfhz;L mwk; nra;fpwhd;.
njhy;fhg;gpaH  njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; %yk; jkpo;nkhopf;F ,yf;fzNtyp mikj;jhH vd;why;  Kd;dH $wpaJNghy jpUts;StH jpUf;Fwspd; thapyhf jkpo;g; gz;ghl;Lf;F Ntyp Nghl;lhH. 


3. xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak;  
cyfpy; Ngrg;gLk; njhd;ikahd nkhopfspy; jkpo; nkhopAk; xd;whFk;. ,e;jpahtpy; toq;Fk; nkhopfspy; jkpo; nkhopkl;LNk ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fzr; rpwg;NghL tpsq;FfpwJ. ,r;rpwg;gpd; fhuzkhf jkpo;nkhop caHjdpr; nrk;nkhop vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. jkpo;nkhop NghyNt tlnkhopf;F ,yf;fpa - ,yf;fzr; rpwg;gpUe;Jk; mJ fpwpj;J rfhg;jj;jpw;F Kd;dNu Ngr;R tof;if ,oe;J tpl;lJ.  
nrk;nkhop vd;why; nrk;ikahd> jpUj;jkhd nkhop vdg; nghUs;gLk;. jkpo;nkhop Vida gy nkhopfs;Nghy; mope;njhopahJ my;yJ Ngr;R tof;F ,of;fhJ rPupsikNahL vj;jpirAk; Gfo;kzf;f nfhYtPw;wpUg;gjw;F fhuzk; mjd; ,yf;fzf; fl;likg;Gf;fNs. 
jkpo;nkhopapy; ,d;W fhzg;gLk; Ehy;fspy; kpfg; gioikahdJ njhy;fhg;gpaH ,aw;wpa njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w ,yf;fz EhNyahFk;. 
jkpou; jk; nkhop> ,yf;fpak;> ,yf;fzk; gw;wpaJ kl;Lk; my;yhJ jkpoupd; tho;T> gz;ghL> ehfupfk; ,tw;iw vLj;Jf;fhl;Lk; tuyhw;W EhYkhFk;. 
njhy;fhg;;gpak; ,aw;wg;gl;l fhyk; vJntd;W mwpjpapl;Lr; nrhy;yKbahJ ,Uf;fpwJ. mJ fp.K. Ie;J Ehw;whz;L goikahdJ vd;gJ mwpQHfs; nghJthf xj;Jf;nfhz;l fUj;jhFk;. ,jidtpl njhy;fhg;gpak; goikahdJ> Kjy;> ,il> filr; rq;fq;fspy; njhy;fhg;gpak; ,ilr;rq;;fj;ij rhHe;j Ehy; vd;W $WthUk; csH. 
vJ vg;gb ,Ug;gpDk; njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpo; kf;fspd; kpfg; goikahd xU r%f mikg;igg; glk;gpbj;Jf;fhl;Ltjhy; mJ cz;ikapNyNa xU njhd;ikahd Ehy; vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy.  
njhy;fhg;gpak; Njhd;wpa fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpa nkhopfspNyh> NtW ve;j cyf nkhopfspNyh mJNghd;w xU ,yf;fz Ehy; Njhd;wtpy;iy vd;W Jzpe;J nrhy;yyhk;. 
gpwnkhopAk;> gpwgz;ghLk; jkpo; nkhopNahLk; jkpo;g; gz;ghNlhLk; cwTnfhs;sj; njhlq;fpa fhyj;jpy;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpak; Njhd;wpapUf;fpwJ. jkpo; nkhopapd; jdpj;jd;ikfisAk;> jkpo;kf;fsJ gz;ghl;bd; jdpj;jd;ikfisAk; ghJfhj;J mtw;wpw;F NtypNghlTk;> gpwnkhopahsHfSk;> gpwgz;ghl;lhsHfSk; jkpo;nkhopiag;gw;wpAk;> jkpo;kf;fsJ gz;ghl;ilg; gw;wpAk; mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpYk; njhy;fhg;gpak; cUthfpapUf;fpwJ.  
vs;spypUe;J vz;nza; gpwg;gJ Nghy; ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,Ue;Nj ,yf;fzk; gpwf;Fk vd;W $WthHfs;. ,jd; mbg;gilapy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F Kd;dH Vuhskhd ,yf;fpa ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; jkpopy; fl;lhakhf ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. 
NguhrpupaH nj.ngh. kPdhl;rpRe;judhH ,e;j cz;ikiag; gpd;tUkhW vLj;J ,ak;GthH:
Tholhappiyam is a book on phonology, grammar and poetics. Therefore, it implies the         prior existence of Thamizh literature. There is a distinction made therein between literary language and colloquial or non-literary language- ceyyuL and valaKku, thus implying certain literary conventions not only in grammatical forms but also in literary forms and subject matter…” 
njhy;fhg;gpaNu jdJ Ehw;ghf;fspy; $wg;gLk; tpjpfSf;F jdf;F Kd;dUk; jdJ fhyj;jpYk;  ,Ue;j GytHfsJ $w;Wf;fisr; rhd;whff; fhl;LthH. ,g;gb Vwj;jho 260 ,lq;fspy; jhd; Kd;ida GytHfsJ newpfisNa jhk; vLj;Jiug;gjhff; $WthH. 
vd;g
vd;kdhH GytH
ahg;ngd nkhopg ahg;gwp GytH
Njhnyd nkhopg njhd;nkhopg; GytH
,ay;G czHe;NjhNu
vd;g Fwpawpe;NjhNu 
vd;W Ehypd; ,ilapilNa gutyhff; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. NkYk; njhy;fhg;gpaH "ehlf tof;fpDk; cyfpay; tof;fpDk;> ghly; rhd;w Gynewp tof;fk;" vd;W jkf;F Kw;gl;l ,yf;fpa kuigf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ,jdhy; mtUf;F Kd;Ng ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwnjd;gijj; Jzpe;J nrhy;yyhk;.  
njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w nrhy; Ehiyf; Fwpf;Fk; NghJ xU nrhy;yhf ,Ue;jhYk;> nghUis tpsf;Fk; NghJ mijj; njhy; rf fhg;G rf ,ak; vdg; gpupj;Jg; nghUs; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. njhy; vd;why; goik - goikia> jkpoupd; njhd;ikiaf; fhj;J ,ak;Gk; Ehy; vd;W nghUs;gLk;. 
njhy;fhg;gpad; vd;w ngaH Fbg;ngauhfj;jhd; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij vOjpajhy; njhy;fhg;gpad; vd;W ngaH ngw;whH vd;W njupfpwJ. 
njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpw;F ghapuk; ghba gdk;ghudhH- 
tlNtq;flk; njd;Fkup Mapil
jkpo;$Wk; ey; cyfj;J>
tof;Fk; nra;ASk; MapU Kjypd;

vOj;Jk; nrhy;Yk; nghUSk; ehb>
nre;jkpo; ,aw;if rptzpa epyj;NjhL
Ke;J Ehy; fz;L> Kiwg;gl vz;zp
Gyk; njhFj;NjhNd--Nghf;F mW gDty;
epyk; jU jpUtpd; ghz;bad; mitaj;J
mwk; fiu ehtpd; ehd; kiw Kw;wpa
mjq;Nfhl;L Mrhw;F mupy; jgj; njupe;J
kaq;fh kugpd; vOj;J Kiwfhl;b>
ky;F ePH tiug;gpd; Ie;jpuk; epiwe;j
njhy;fhg;gpad; vdj; jd; ngaH Njhw;wp>
gy; Gfo; epWj;j gbikNahNd"
"vdj; jd; ngaH Njhw;wp" vd;gjhy;  "njhy;fhg;gpad; vdg; ngaH itj;Jf; nfhz;lhH" vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.  
,e;j ghapuk; %yNk gz;ila jkpofj;jpd; vy;iy tlf;Nf Ntq;flk; (,d;iwa jpUg;gjp) njw;Nf Fkup  vd;gJk;> njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; MrpupaH njhy;fhg;gpadhH vd;gJk;> njhy;fhg;gpak; muq;Nfwpa ,lk; epye;jU jpUtpw; ghz;bad; mit vd;gJk;> me;j mitf;F jiyikjhq;fpa GytH mjq;Nfhl;lhrhd; vd;gJk; njhy;fhg;gpaH mtH fhyj;J toq;fpa Ie;jpunewpiag; gpd;gw;wp njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij ,aw;wpdhH vd;gJk; njuptpf;fg;gLfpwJ.  
njhy;fhg;gpak; topEhy; vd;Wk; mjd; Kjy; Ehy; mfj;jpak; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLtJ cz;lhapDk; mjw;F ,e;jg; ghapuj;jpNyh my;yJ njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpNyh rhd;Wfs; ,y;iy. 
mfj;jpak; ,d;W mope;Jgl;L tpl;lJ. ,Ue;Jk; mfj;jpak; vd;w ,yf;fz Ehy; Kjw;rq;f fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jjw;Fk;> mJ ,ay;> ,ir> ehlfk; vd;w Kj;jkpOf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; fz;ljw;Fk; Gwr; rhd;Wfs; cs. ,iwadhufg;nghUSiu mfj;jpaH Kjw;rq;fj;J jiyikg; Gytnud;Wk;> jiyr;rq;fj;jhUf;F mfj;jpaNk Kjy;Ehyhf ,Ue;jnjd;Wk;> ,ilr;rq;fj;jhUf;F mfj;jpaKk; njhy;fhg;gpaKk; ,yf;fz Ehy;fshf ,Ue;jnjdTk; njuptpf;fpd;wJ.  
,yf;fz ciuahrpupaHfSk; mfj;jpak; Kjy;Ehy;> njhy;fhg;gpak; mjd; topEhy; vd;Wk;> mfj;jpaH njhy;fhg;gpaupd; MrpupaH vd;Wk; jj;jk; ciufspy; Fwpg;gl;Ls;shHfs;.
mfj;jpak; gd;dPuhapuk; R+j;jpuq;fisf; nfhz;l Ehy; vd;gH. ,jdhy; ,jw;F Ngufj;jpak; vd;w fhuzg; ngaUk; cz;lhfpw;W.  
njhy;fhg;gpak;> ed;Dhy;> rpyg;gjpfhuk;> rPtfrpe;jhkzp ciuahrpupaHfs; mfj;jpa Ehw;ghf;fis Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;b ciu nra;Js;shHfs;. ,g;gb Nkw;Nfhs;fhl;b vOjpa nkhj;jk; 26 Ehw;ghf;fs; kl;Lk; ,d;W fpilj;Js;sd. 
njhy;fhg;gpak;  vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; vd %d;W mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. xt;nthU mjpfhuKk; KiwNa xd;gJ ,ay;fisf; nfhz;lJ. nkhj;jk; 1>610 Ehw;ghf;fis cs;sbf;fpaJ.  
nghUsjpfhuk;  NtW ve;j cyfnkhop ,yf;fzq;fspy; fhzg;glhj rpwg;gpyf;fzkhFk;. Vida ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; vOj;J> nrhy; ,tw;Wf;F kl;Lk; ,yf;fzk; nrhy;Yk; NghJ njhy;fhg;gpak; nghUSf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; etpy;fpwJ. 
"nre;jkpo; khztd;" vd;W jdJ fy;yiwapy; vOjp itf;FkhW ngUikahff; $wpf;nfhz;l G.U. Nghg; IaH njhy;fhg;gpa Ehypd;  rpwg;igg;gw;wp gpd;tUkhW $WfpwhH: 
“The ancient grammatical works existing in Tamil and its wonderful metrical system proves its assiduous cultivation for ages. An elaborate scientific series of metres such as Tamil glories is adapted to every style and theme of composition is the growth of centuries. Classical Tamil bears every mark of slow and natural evolution.” (G.U. Pope- Thamilar Charithtram-Swami Gnanapragasar).            
Nghg;igaH NghyNt njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; ngUikiaAk;> rpwg;igAk; KidtH t.Rg. khzpf;fk; mtHfs; mjw;F vOjpa ciuapd; njhlf;fj;jpy;  gpd;tUkhW $WthH. 
"njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w cyff; fsQ;rpak; nkhopapYk; mftho;tpYk; Gwr;R+oypYk; fl;Lg;ghL> tsHr;rp> Jha;ik Ntz;Lk; tuk;G Ehy;. njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w jkpo; KjDhy;> topte;j goikj; jlq;fhl;b> epfo;fhyr; nrt;tp NrHj;J> tsUk; vjpHfhyg; GJikg; Gul;rpf;F ,lk; tFf;Fk; ,af;f Ehy;.  
njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w kiwEhy;  gpwg;G> kjk;> ghy;> FO> ,lk;> nghUs; epiy Ntw;Wikfisg; gw;whJ ,aw;ifmwk;> kwk;> ntw;wp> mikjp> fhjy; ,d;gk; vd;Dk;,t;Tyfpaq;fis khdplj;jpw;F vLj;Jf;fhl;Lk; cyf tho;T Ehy;. ,af;f tho;Tg; ngUkiwahd njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij <d;wts; jkpo;j;jha;.  
jkpoHfshfpa ehk; %thapuk; Mz;Lj; njhd;ikAila ,e;Ehiy ek; jha;nkhopapNy ,d;Wk; gbf;Fk; vspa ,dpa NeHtha;g;gpidg; ngw;wpUf;fpNwhk;. ,JNt jkpo;g;gpwg;gpd; xU rpwg;ngd czHf. NkYk; njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ,d;WfhWk; gpd;Njhd;wpa ngupa rpwpa ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fz Ehy;fspnyy;yhk; njhy;fhg;gpa ePNuhl;lk; cz;L. Mjypd; njhy;fhg;gpa epidTk; njhy;fhg;gpaf; fUj;jwpTk; ngWjy; jkpod; vd;ghd; xt;nthUtdpd; gpwg;Gf; flikahFk;." 
vy;yhr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; nghUs;jhd; mbg;gil. nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ij tpsf;f nrhw;fs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. mr; nrhw;fs; vOj;Jf;fspdhy; Mdit. vdNt nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ijr; nrhy;yj;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpaH vOj;J ,yf;fzj;ijAk;> nrhy; ,yf;fzj;ijAk; nrhd;dhH.  
nghUsjpfhuk; cyfj; Njhw;wk;> capHfspd; tifg;ghL> ntt;NtW epyk;> me;j epyj;Jf;Fupa nja;tq;fs;> kf;fs;> kf;fspd; mftho;f;if> Gwtho;f;if newpfs;> MltHf;Fupa gz;Gfs;> ngz;fSf;Fupa gz;Gfs;> kuq;fs;> tpyq;Ffs;> ,yf;fpa tiffs;> ,yf;fpaf; Nfhl;ghLfs;> ,yf;fpa kuGfs;> ,yf;fpaj; jpwdha;Tfs;> clypYk; cs;sj;jpYk; Njhd;Wk; nka;g;ghLfs; ,g;gb xl;L nkhj;j r%fj;ijg; gw;wpr; nrhy;fpwJ>
njhy;fhg;gpak; nrhy;Yk; nghUs; ,yf;fzk; jkpoHfSf;F kl;Lk; nrhd;d ,yf;fzk; md;W. cyf kf;fSf;Fr; nrhd;d ,yf;fzkhfTk; mJ tpsq;FfpwJ. 
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf njhy;fhg;gpak; nrhy;Yk; vl;Ltif nka;g;ghLfshd eif> mOif> ,sptuy;> kUl;if> mr;rk;> ngUkpjk; cyfj;jtH ahtUf;Fk; nghUe;JtdthFk;. 
ngUkpjj;Jf;F ,yf;fzk; nrhy;y te;j njhy;fhg;gpaH- 
fy;tp jWfz; ,irik nfhil vdr;
nrhy;yg;gl;l ngUkpjk; ehd;Nf
vd;W nrhy;tJ vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; ngUkpjk; Vw;gLtjw;F mbg;gilahdit fw;w fy;tp> mQ;rhik>  Gfo;> nfhLj;jyhfpa mwk; nghJthdjhFk;.  
vOj;jjpfhuj;jpy; Ehy; kuG> nkhopkuG> gpwg;gpay;> Gzupay;> njhifkuG> cUgpay;> capH kaq;fy;> Gs;sp kaq;fpay;> Fw;wpaYfug; Gzupay; vd xd;gJ ,ay;fs; tpupj;Jf; $wg;gl;Ls;sd.
KjyhtJ ,ayhd Ehy; kugpy; jkpo; nkhopapYs;s vOj;Jf;fspd; vz;zpf;if> vOj;Jf;fis xypf;Fk; fhy msT> xypapd; mbg;gilapy; vOj;Jf;fspd; tifg;ghL> mtw;wpd; ngaHfs;> vOj;Jf;fs; xd;Nwhnlhd;W NrHe;J tUfpd;w NrHf;if epiy Kjyhd nra;jpfs; jug;gl;Ls;sd. ,g;gbNa Vida ,ay;fSk; kpf El;gkhf tpsf;fg;gLfpd;wd. 
nrhy;yjpfhuKk; xd;gJ ,ay;fisf; nfhz;lJ. fpstpahf;fk;> Ntw;Wikapay;> Ntw;Wikkaq;fpapay;> tpspkuG> ngaupay;> tpidapay;> ,ilapay;> cupapay;> vr;rtpay; vd;gdNt me;j xd;gJ ,ay;fshFk;.  
Ie;J njhlf;fk; vl;Ltiuapyhd ,ay;fs; KiwNa ngaHr;nrhy;> tpidr;nrhy;> ,ilr;nrhy;> cupr;nrhy; Mfpa ehy;tifr; nrhw;fSf;Fk; ,yf;fzk; $Wfpd;wd.    
njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu vOjpNahH gyuhtH. mtw;wpy; ,d;W vkJ iff;Ff; fpilj;jpUg;gJ xU rpyuJ ciufNs MFk;. 
Vwf; Fiwa 10-Mk; Ehw;whz;bd; gpd;dNu njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;fhd ciufs; Njhd;Wfpd;wd. njhy;fhg;gpak; vOj;J> nrhy;> nghUs; ,k; %d;Wf;Fk; ,sg;G+uzH vOjpa ciu fpilj;jpUf;fpwJ. njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F KjyhtJ Njhd;wpa ciuAk; KOikahff; fpilj;jpUf;Fk; ciuAk; ,JNt MFk;.  
njhy;fhg;gpa ciufspy; Ke;jpaJ ,sk;G+uzH ciuahFk;. fhyj;jhy; gpe;jpaJ eHr;rpdhHf;fpdpauJ ciu. vOj;J mjpfhuj;Jf;F ,sk;G+uzhH ciu ePq;fyhff; fpilj;jpUf;Fk; ciu er;rpdhHfpdpauJ ciuNa. 
nrhy; mjpfhuj;Jf;F ,sk;G+uzH> NrdhtiuaH> er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH> nja;tr;rpiyahH> fy;yhlH vd;gtHfs; vOjpa ciufs; jw;NghJ fpilf;fpd;wd. nghUs;  mjpfhuj;Jf;F Vw;fdNt $wpathW ,sk;G+uzH vOjpa ciuia tpl nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpd; Kjy; Ie;J ,ay;fSf;Fk; nra;As; ,aYf;Fk; er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH ciu cs;sJ. NguhrpupaH nghUs; mjpfhuk; nka;g;ghl;;bay;> ctk ,ay;> nra;As; ,ay;> kuG ,ay; ehd;fpw;Fk; ciu vOjpAs;shH. cz;ikapy; NguhrpupaH njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; %d;W mjpfhuq;fSf;Fk; ciu vOjpajhf ek;gg;gLfpwJ. nghUs; mjpfhuj;jpd; nkhj;j ,ay; xd;gjpy; ehYf;F ciu vOjpatH Kjy; Ie;ijAk; tpl;L tpl;L filrp ehd;Ff;F  kl;Lk; ciunra;jpUg;ghH vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ. 
ciuahrpupaHfisg;gw;wp ,t;thW tpupthff; $Wtjw;Ff; fhuzk; ,e;j ciuahrpupaHfs; njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;F ciu nra;jpuhJ tpl;bUe;jhy; Fiwe;jJ ,uz;lhapuj;J Ie;EhW Mz;L goik tha;e;j njhy;fhg;gpaj;ijg; gbj;J mjd; cl;fUj;ij cs;sthW czHe;J nfhs;tJ rpukkhf ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. 
fpilf;fpw ciufSk; gj;jhk; Ehw;whz;Lf;Fg; gpwF nra;jitNa. ,jdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH R+j;jputbtpy; ,Wf;fkhfr; nrhy;tjw;F mtH ifahz;l mtuJ fhyj;J nrhy;yhl;rpfSf;F nghUs; fhz;gjpy; fUj;J NtWghL ,Uf;fpd;wd. 
vLj;Jf; fhl;lhfr; nrhy;y Ntz;Lnkd;why; nghUsjpfhuk>; Gwj;jpizapay; (27)- 
nfhbepiy> fe;jop> ts;sp vd;w
tLePq;F rpwg;gpd; Kjyd %d;Wk;
flTs; tho;j;njhL fz;zpa tUNk.
nfhbepiy> fe;jsp> ts;sp ,e;jr; nrhw;fSf;Fg; nghUs; vd;d? ,sk;G+uzH nfhbepiy> fe;jsp> ts;sp ,tw;wpw;F Neubahfg; nghUs; nrhy;yhJ Gwg;ghly;fis cjhuzk; fhl;b> ",J nfhbepiy">  ",J fe;jsp" vd;W nrhy;thH. 
tL ePq;F rpwg;gpd; nfhbepiy fe;jop vd;w Kjyhd %d;Wk; - Fw;wk; jPHe;j rpwg;gpidAila nfhbepiy Kjyhfr; nrhy;yg;gl;l Kw;gl;l %d;Wk;>  flTs; tho;j;njhL fz;zpa tUNk - ghl;Lilj; jiykfidr; rhHj;jp tUq;fhyj;Jf; flTs; tho;j;jp tUk;. 
nfhbepiy vd;why; fPo;j;jpirf; flTs;. fe;jsp - gw;Wf; Nfhlw;w nja;tk;. ts;sp vd;why; ts;sy;jd;ik. Mdhy; ,e;jr; nrhw;fSf;F NtWtpjkhfTk; ciu nrhy;tH. "fjpH> jP> kjp ,k;%d;iwAk; tho;j;JtJk; flTs; tho;j;Jg; NghyNt vz;zg;gLk;" vd;Wk; ciu nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. 
njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; Ml;rpapypUe;j rpy nrhw;fs; gpd;dH tof;nfhope;J Nghapd. cjhuzk; ",Njhsp"> "mNjhsp"> "cNjhsp"> "vNjhsp" vd;w nrhw;fs; ,d;W tof;fpy; ,y;iy.  
,e;j ,lj;jpy; xd;iwf; $wNtz;Lk;. njhy;fhg;gpaH flTs; vd;w nrhy;iy NjtH vd;w nghUspy;jhd; ifahs;fpwhH. "vy;yhk; fle;j nka;g;nghUs; flTs;" vd;w nrhy;yhl;rp mtH fhyj;jpy; ,y;iy. njhy;fhg;gpak; Fwpg;gpLk; flTs; tho;j;njd;gjw;F "mkuH tho;j;J" vd;gJjhd; nghUs;. 
fhkg; gFjp flTSk; tiuahH
VNdhH ghq;fpDk; vd;kdhH GytH
 
(njhy;.nghUs;-Gwj;jpizapay; -R+j;jpuk; 23) 
",d;gg; gFjpfisf; flTsplkpUe;Jk; ePf;fkhl;lhHfs;. kf;fsplj;Jk; ,Ue;J ePf;f khl;lhHfs; vd;W GytH $WtH" vd;gNj ,jd; nghUs;. mJ flTs; khl;Lf; flTl; ngz;bH eag;gdTk;> mtH khl;L khdplg; ngz;bH eagdg;gTk;> flTs; khdplg; ngz;biu eag;gdTk;> gpwTk; Mk;" vd;gJ er;rpdhHf;fpdpaH ciu.   
,/J flTs; vd;w nrhy; NjtHfisf;  Fwpj;jijf; fhl;LfpwJ. 
njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; jkpofj;jpy; gy nja;t tzf;fq;fs; ,Ue;jd. jpUkhy;> KUfd;> ,e;jpud;> tUzd;> nfhw;wit> QhapW> jpq;fs;> jP Kjypaitfisj; jkpoHfs; nja;tq;fshf tzq;fp te;jdH. ,ikatHfs; vd;w NjtHfisAk; nja;tq;fshff; nfhz;bUe;jdH.  
kpfTk; tpag;ghd nra;jp vd;dntd;why; njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; rpt  topghL ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rptidf; Fwpf;Fk; nrhy; 1610 njhy;fhg;gpa Ehw;ghf;fspy; xd;wpYk; ,y;iy. (ehy; Ntjq;fspy; Kjy; Ntjkhd ,Uf;F NtjKk; rptidf; Fwpf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ <q;F Fwpj;jw;ghyJ.)  
NrNahd; vd;w nrhy; rptidf; Fwpg;gjhfr; rpyH nrhy;fpwhHfs;. NrNahd; vd;why; nrk;ik> rpte;j epwj;Njhd;> vdNt NrNahd; rptidf; Fwpf;fpwJ vd;gH. 
FwpQ;rp epyj;Jj; nja;tj;ij NrNahd; vd;W njhy;fhg;gpaH Fwpg;gij Kd;dH ghHj;Njhk;. FwpQ;rp epyj;J nja;tk; KUfd;> nrt;Nts;> NrNahd; vd;gNj njhd;W njhl;L tUk; tof;fkhFk;. FwpQ;rp epy kf;fs; FwtH> Fwj;jpaH vdj;  njhy;fhg;gpak; etpYk;. KUfd; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;lJ Fwg;ngz;zhd ts;sp vd;gJ Guhz tof;F. ,jdhNyNa KUfd; jkpo;f; flTs; vd;W Nghw;wg;gLfpwhH NghYk;. 
vdNt ",yf;fpa tof;fpYk;> cyfpay;  tof;fpYk; FwpQ;rpj; nja;tk; KUfdhfNt vz;zg;gLfpwhd;. rptngUkhd; FwpQ;rpj; nja;tk; vd;gjw;F ,yf;fpa tof;Fk; ,y;iy. cyf tof;Fk; ,y;iy." ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH epr;rak; Rl;bapUg;ghH. 
,jdhy; fp.K. Ie;jhk; Ehw;whz;by; jkpofj;jpy; rptd; vd;w nja;tNkh rptkjNkh ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;;gJ rhkp rpjk;gudhH Nghd;w jkpowpQHfsJ JzpghFk;. 
njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fg; gpe;jpa filr;rq;f ,yf;fpf;fpaq;fs; rptidf; Fwpf;fpd;wd. "Kf;fl; nry;tH efH" vdg; GwehDhw;wpd; 6 Mk; ghly; Fwpf;fpwJ. Ehw;wpj; njhz;Zhw;nwl;lhtJ ghly; jpUkhiy "My; mkH flTs;" vdf; Fwpf;fpwJ. 
vl;Lj;njhif Ehy;fspy; xd;whd GwehDhW ntt;NtW fhyj;jpy; ntt;NtW GytHfs; ghba ghly;fspd; njhFg;ghFk;. njhFj;jtH> njhFg;gpj;jtH ngaH njupatpy;iy. ,jpy; fhzg;gLk; gioa - Gjpa ghly;fspw;F ,ilapy; 400 - 600 Mz;L ,ilntsp ,Ug;gjhf ek;gg;gLfpwJ.  
njhy;fhg;gpak; jkpoHfSf;F fpilj;j GijayhFk;. mjd; rpwg;Gf; fhuzkhfNt Mapuf;fzf;fhd  ,ilr; rq;f> filr; rq;f ,yf;fpa> ,yf;fz Ehy;fs; gy fhynts;sj;jpy; ms;Sz;L mope;njhope;J Nghfj; njhy;fhg;gpak; jg;gpg; gpioj;jJ. 
njhy;fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dH Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhd ,yf;fz Ehy;fs;> gy topEhy;fshf> vOjg; gl;Ls;sd. mtw;wpy; xd;NwDk; njhy;fhg;gpaH gilj;j njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; nfhLKbia vl;bg; gpbf;f Kbatpy;iy. 
jkpopy; gpw;fhyj;jpy; vOe;j Guhzq;fs; GidfijfisAk;> gFj;jwpTf;Fg; nghUe;jhj fw;gidfisAk; kdk;Nghd Nghf;fpy; nrhy;ypAs;sd. 
,e;j cyfj;ij xU mRud; ghiag;Nghyr; RUl;bf; nfhz;LNgha; flypy; xspj;Jg; Nghl;ljhf nrhy;Yk; Guhzf; fij ,Uf;fpwJ. G+kpf;F NkNy VOYyfk;> G+kpf;Ff; fPNo VOYyfk;> nrhHf;fNyhfk;> eufNyhfk;> NjtNyhfk; vd;w vz;zpwe;j cyfq;fis GuhzpfHfs; fw;gidf;F vl;bathW gilj;jpUf;fpwhHfs;. 
,jid kdjpy; itj;Jj;jhd; kfhftp ghujpahH gpd;tUkhW ghLthH.   
flypidj; jhTk; Fuq;Fk; - ntq;
     fdypw; gpwe;jNjhH nrt;tpjo;g; ngz;Zk;

tlkiy jho;e;jjdhNy - njw;fpy;

     te;J rkd;nrAk; Fl;il KdpAk;

ejpap Ds;NsKO fpg;Ngha; - me;j

     ehfH cyfpNyhH ghk;gpd; kfis

tpjpAw Ntkzk; nra;j - jpwy;

     tPkDk; fw;gid vd;gJ fz;Nlhk;.

xd;W kw; nwhd;iwg; gopf;Fk; - xd;wpy;

     cz;iknad; Nwhjpkw; nwhd;Wngha; nad;Dk;

ed;W Guhzq;fs; nra;jhH - mjpy;
     ey;y ftpij gyg;gy je;jhH.

ftpij kpf ey;y NjDk; - mf;

     fijfs; ngha;nad;W njspTwf; fz;Nlhk;

Gtpjdpy; tho;newp fhl;b -ed;ik

     Nghjpf;Fk; fl;Lf; fijfs; mitjhk;.
      (ghujpahH Gjpaghly;fs;) 
vdNt Guhzq;fs; vy;yhk; ey;y ftpijfs; vd;whYk; mitnay;yhk; fl;Lf; fijfs; vd;gij ehk; kwe;Jtplf;$lhJ. mtw;iw Ntjk; vdf; fUjp ghkuHfs; my;yy;gl;L miyfpwhHfs;.  
rq;ffhyj; jkpoHfs; ,aw;ifNahL ,ize;J> ,aw;ifiaf; fz;L kfpo;e;J ,aw;if tho;f;if tho;e;jhHfs;.  me;j ,aw;if tho;f;ifiaNa ghly;fSf;Fg; ghL nghUshff; nfhz;lhHfs;. 
njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; ,e;j cyfj;jpd; Njhw;wj;ijg;gw;wpAk;> cyfpYs;s capHfspd; tsHr;rp gw;wpAk; Muha;e;J mwpTG+Htkhf njhFj;J  kugpaypy; vOjpapUf;fpwhH. kugpay; vd;gJ  guk;giuahf> toptopahf tUk; Kiwik> tof;Ffs; gw;wpf; $WtjhFk;. 
"epYKk;> ePUk;> fhw;Wk;> tpz;Zk; fye;jnjhU kaf;fkhd epiyapy; cyfk; cz;lhapw;W. ,itahTk; XH vy;iyf;F cl;gl;L ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j epiyapy; capHfs; Njhd;wpw;W" vdj; njhy;fhg;gpaH $WfpwhH. 
epyk; jP ePH tsp tpRk;NghL Ie;Jk;
fye;j kaf;fk; cyfk; Mjypd;
,Ujpiz Ik;ghy; ,ay;newp tohmikj;

jpupT,y; nrhy;nyhL johmy; Ntz;Lk;.
 
    (njhy;. kugpay; 1589) 
(,t;Tyfk; epyk;> jP> ePH> fhw;W> thd; vd;w Ik;G+jq;fspd; fyitjhd;. mjdhy; caHjpiz> my;jpiz> Mz;> ngz;> gyH> xd;W> gy vd;w ,Ujpiz> Ie;J ghy;fspd; ,ay;gpdp;d;Wk; tOthJ> jpupG ,y;yhj nrhw;fshy; $wpj; jOtpf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.) 
capupd; Njhw;wj;ijAk; mjd; ghFghl;ilAk; gpd;tUkhW njhy;fhg;gpaH nrhy;thH. 
xd;W mwptJNt cw;W mwptJNt
,uz;L mwptJNt mjndhL ehNt

%d;W mwptJNt mtw;nwhL %f;Nf

ehd;F mwptJNt mtw;nwhL fz;Nz

Ie;J mwptJNt mtw;nwhL  nrtpNa

MW mwptJNt mtw;nwhL nrtpNa

MW mwptJNt mtw;NwhL kdNd

Neupjpd; czHe;NjhH newpg;gLj;jpdNu.
 (njhy;. kugpay; -1526) 
(clk;ghy; kl;Lk; mwptd XH mwpT capHfs;. clk;ghYk; ehthYk; mwptd ,uz;L mwpTapHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F %d;whYk; mwptd %mwp capHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F> fz;> ,it ehd;fhYk; mwptd ehywp capHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F> fz;> fhJ vd;Dk; Ie;jhy; mwptd Itwp capHfs;. clk;G> eh> %f;F> fz;> fhJ> kdk; ,e;j MNwhLk; mwptd Mwwp capHfs;. ,tw;iwj; njspthf czHe;NjhH newp Kiwahf czHj;jp cs;sdH.) 
njhy;fhg;gpaupd; ,e;jr; R+j;jpuk; gz;ila jkpoHfSf;F $Hjy; mwk; (kdpjdpd; gupzhk tsHr;rp) njupe;jpUe;jijj; njspthff; fhl;LfpwJ.  
,jid mLj;J XuwpT Kjy; MwwpT capHfSf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf; fhl;LfpwhH. 
Gy;Yk;> kuKk; XH mwpT>
rq;F> ej;ij> rpw;gp  <uwpT>

fiwahd;> vWk;G  %d;wwpT>

ez;Lk;> Jk;gpAk; ehd;fwpT>

tpyq;Ffs;> gwitfs; Ie;jwpT>

kdpj ,dk; kl;LNk MwwpT> 
njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpy; fhfpjk;> mr;R> ik> etPd vOJNfhy; fz;Lgpbf;fg; gltpy;iy. Muha;r;rp nra;a cjTk; cgfuzq;fs; ntg;gkhdp> cUg;ngUf;fp> njhiyg;ngUf;fp vJTk; fz;L gpbf;fg; gltpy;iy. mg;gbahd xU fhy fl;lj;jpy; ,t;tsT Muha;e;J $wpapUg;gJ tpag;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ. 
njhy;fhg;gpaH kdpj ,dj; Njhw;wk; gw;wpr; nrhy;tJ lhHtpdpd; $Hjy;; nfhs;iff;F Vwf;Fiwa xj;Js;sJ. ,t;tsT Muha;r;rp nra;j jkpod;gw;wp ngUikg;glf; fhuzk; ,Ue;jhYk;  gpw;fhyj;jpy; mtw;iw tsHf;fhky; tpl;L> nrhHf;fk;> eufk;> tPLNgW Ngupd;gk;> ght Gz;zpak;> ahfk; (Nts;tp) Ntjhe;j- rpj;jhe;j Muha;r;rpapy; jkpod; ,wq;fp "tho;thtJ  khak;> kz;zhtJ jpz;zk;" vd;w jpz;izg; Ngr;Rg; Ngrp mwpahikapy; %o;fpaJ  ftiyiaj;  jUfpwJ.    
murpay; gz;ghl;Lj; jsj;jpy; jha;j; jkpofk; vOEhW Mz;Lfs; me;epauhy; mbik nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Nra;j; jkpofk; ehDhW Mz;Lfs; me;epa Ml;fpf;F mbikg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; jkpopdk; fyg;gpdkhfp tho;Tk; tsKk; ,oe;jJ. 
jkpopdk; ,d;W jd;id kPo;fz;L gpbf;Fk; Kaw;rpapy;>  Gfo; G+j;j jdJ gioafhy tuyhw;iwg; jpUg;gpg; ghHf;f  tpUk;GfpwJ. ehfupfj;jpd; nfhL Kbiaj; njhl;l ,dk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; ghjhsj;jpy; tPo;e;J tpl;ljw;F njhy;fhg;gpak; jUk; juTfs; rhd;whf cs;sJ. ,we;j fhyj;jpy; ,Ug;gjw;fhf my;y ,we;jfhyk; Gfl;Lk; ghlj;ijg; gbj;J vjpHfhyj;ij nrg;gdplNt jkpoHfs; njhy;fhg;gpak;> kw;Wk;rq;ffhy; ,yf;fpaq;fis nfhQ;rk; Kaw;rp nra;J   gbf;f Ntz;Lk;. jkpodJ murpay;> gz;ghL> fiy ,tw;wpd; kWkyHr;fpf;F mj;jifa  ,yf;fz ,yf;fpa tuyhw;W czHT ifnfhLf;Fk;.  
njhy;fhg;gpak; ,yf;fz Ehy; vd;gjhy; mijj; njhl tpUk;ghjtHfs; ,Uf;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij jkpoHfsJ nkhop ehfupfr; rpwg;ig mwpa cjTk; fhyf; fz;zhb vd;w czHNthL gbj;jhy; njhy;fhg;gpak; epr;rak; ,dpf;Fk;. me;j Mtiyj; Jhz;lNt xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpaj;ij> ngUk;ghYk; nghUs; mjpfhuj;ij ,q;F NkNyhl;lkhf Mdhy; rw;W tpupthf mwpKfk; nra;jpUf;fpNwd;. ,jd; %yk; njhy;fhg;gpaj;jpd; mUikAk; rpwg;Gk; fUjp NkYk; mjidf; fw;f MHtk; Vw;gLk; vd ek;GfpNwd;.


4. nghJ kiw 
,yf;fzk; vd;gjw;fhf njhy;fhg;gpak; fhyk; fhykhfg; GytHfshy; Nghw;wg;gl;L te;jpUg;gJ Nghy; rpwe;j mwEhy; vd;w fhuzj;Jf;fhf jpUf;Fws; Nghw;wg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ. ,t;thW GytH ngUkf;fshy;  Nghw;wg;gl;L te;j fhuzj;jhNyNa  ,e;j ,uz;L Ehy;fSk; rpijTwhJ KOikahf ,d;W vkf;Ff; fpilj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhy;yyhk;.  
me;epa nkhop> gz;ghl;Lg; gilnaLg;gpdhYk;> muRupik ,oe;jjpdhYk;  jkpoHfNs jkpo;nkhopapd; rpwg;igAk; jkpoHfspd; tuyhw;Wg; ngUikiaAk; njupe;J nfhs;s tha;g;gpy;yhJ Ngha;tpl;lJ. ,d;iwa vkJ jho;Tf;Fk; tPo;r;rpf;Fk;  ,e;j mwpahik Kf;fpa fhuzpahFk;.
ts;StH nra; jpUf;FwNs jkpoHfspd; ehfupfr; rpwg;igAk; gz;ghl;bd; caHitAk; cyFf;F vLj;Jr; nrhy;fpwJ. ,jd; fhuzkhfNt jpUf;Fws; jkpoHfspd; kiwahfg; Nghw;wg;gLfpwJ. 
jpUf;Fwspy;  nkhj;jk; 133 mjpfhuk; cz;L. ,jpy; Kjy; 4 mjpfhuq;fs; ghapuk; vd;W jiyg;gpl;L KiwNa flTs; tho;j;J> thd;rpwg;G> ePj;jhH ngUik>  mwd; typAWj;jy; gw;wpg; NgRfpd;wd> mLj;J mwj;Jg; ghypy; 38 mjpfhuq;fs; cz;L vd;W Kd;dNu ghHj;Njhk;. vQ;rpa 34 mjpfhuq;fspy; 20 mjpfhuq;fs; ,y;yw ,aiyg;gw;wpg; NgRfpwJ. mLj;J 13 mjpfhuq;fs; Jwtw ,ay;gw;wpg; nrhy;fpwJ. filrp mjpfhukhd  Co; ,ay; Co;gw;wpg; NgRfpwJ.  nghUs; ghypy;  70 mjpfhuq;fSk; fhkj;Jg;ghypy; vQ;rpa 25 mjpfhuq;fSk; fhzg;gLfpd;;wd.  ,jpy; ,Ue;J njuptJ vd;dntd;why; nkhj;jk; 133 mjpfhuq;fspy; flTs; tho;j;J> thd;rpwg;G> ePj;jhH ngUik> mwd; typAWj;jy; ,e;j ehd;NfhL Jwtwk; gw;wpa 13 mjpfhuq;fisAk; NrHj;J nkhj;jk; 17 mjpfhuq;fNs mwNthHf;Fk; Jwe;NjhHf;Fk; xJf;fp ,Uf;fpwhH.  vQ;rpa 95 mjpfhuq;fSk; ,e;j cyf tho;f;iff;Fj; Njitahd nghUs; gw;wpAk; ,d;gk; gw;wpAk; nrhy;tjw;F xJf;fp ,Uf;fpwhH.  
    ts;StH nra; jpUf;Fwis kWtwed; FzHe;NjhHfs;
    cs;StNuh kDthjp xUFyj;Jf;F xU ePjp..
vd;W jpUf;Fwspd; epiwiaAk; kDjHk rhj;jpuj;jpd; FiwiaAk; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;Jf;F jpUg;gs;spnaOr;rp ghba kNdhz;kzpak; MrpupaH NguhrpupaH Re;juk;gps;is xg;GNehf;fpr; nrhy;thH. xU Fyj;Jf;F xU ePjp tFj;J ehy;tUz rhjp KiwiaAk; gpuhkz Nkyhz;ikiag; ghJfhg;gNj kDjHkj;jpd; Nehf;fkhFk;.   
fle;j 2000 Mz;Lfshf jpUf;Fws; mur kl;lj;jpy; ,Ul;lbg;Gr; nra;ag;gl;L te;Js;sJ. ,uhkhazk;> ghujk; Nghd;w gpw gz;ghl;L ,jpfhrq;fs;> fw;gidg; Guhzq;fs;>  xU Fyj;Jf;F xU ePjp NgRk; kDrhj;jpuq;fs;  jkpoH tho;tpy; fye;jJ Nghy; jpUf;Fws; fyf;ftpy;iy. tHzhr;rpu jHkj;;;;;;;;;;;ijAk; mjd; cl;gpupthd rhjp mikg;igAk; Jhf;fpg; gpbf;Fk; gftj;fPij jkpo; r%fj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg; gl;lJ Nghy; tho;f;iff;F topfhl;Lk;  jpUf;Fws; mwpKfg;gLj;jg; gltpy;iy. Gwg; gz;ghl;Lr; Nrw;wpy; jkpo; r%fk; mkpo;e;J mope;J gl;lNj ,jw;Ff; fhuzkhFk;. 
jpUf;Fws; Kg;ghy;gw;wp kl;Lk; NgrpaJ. Mupa Ntjq;fs; ehw;ghy; gw;wpg; gpjw;wpd. Mupa Ntjk; ehl;ba ehy;tHzk; ehyhapuk; rhjpiaf; fw;gpj;jJ. jpUf;Fws; "gpwg;nghf;Fk; vy;yh capHf;Fk;" vd;W Koq;fpaJ.  ts;StH fhyj;jpy; gyH gpwg;G mbg;gilapy; jq;fis me;jzH vd;W nrhy;ypAk;> gpwg;ghy; caHe;jtHfs; vd;W nrhy;ypAk;  cyh te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjdhy; me;jzH ahH vd;gjw;F jpUts;StH tiutpyf;fzk; tFf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ.  "me;jzH vd;NghH mwNthH> kw;W vt;TapHf;Fk; nre;jz;ik G+z;nlhOfyhd;" vd;W giwaiwe;jJ jpUf;Fws;.. ,q;Nf gpwg;ghy; kl;Lk; xUtd; caHT fzpf;fg;gLk; vd;w Mupaf; Nfhl;ghl;il Kw;W KOjhf cilj;J vwpfpwhH ts;StH. 
Mupa Ntjk; mtp nrhupe;J Mapuk; Nts;tpfs; elhj;jpaJ. Vkhe;j my;yJ Vkhw;wg;gl;l rq;f fhy %Nte;jHfNs ,e;j Nts;tpfs; nra;jhy; nrhHf;fk; fpilf;Fk;> RfNghfk; fpilf;Fk; vd;w  %lek;gpf;ifapy; Ntj Nts;tpfs; nra;jhHfs;. gpuhkzHfSf;F Kw;Wk; mbikahfpj; jkpofj;ijg; ghohf;fpa ghz;baUs; jiyrpwe;j murHfspy; xUtdhd ngUtOjpf;F "gy;ahfrhiy KJFbkpg; ngUtOjp" vd;w gl;lNk ,Ue;jJ.  
Ntj Nts;tpfisf; fzf;fw;Wr; nra;jjhYk;>  NtjNkhjpa ghHg;gdHfis vy;yhk; KdptH vd;W $wp> mtUf;Fj; jd; Fbkp mtpo;j;J tpOkhW jiy Fdpe;J tzq;Fk;gb> KJFLkpg; ngUtOjpia fhupf;fpohH vd;w jkpo;g; GytH Ntz;l mg;gbNa mtd; nra;jjhYk;  mtDf;F ,e;jg; gl;lk; fpilj;jJ NghYk;. md;iwa epyikiag; ghHf;Fk; NghJ ,f;fhyk; ew;fhyk;Nghy; Njhd;WfpwJ. 
,iwQ;Rf ngUkepd; nrd;dp rpwe;j
ehd;kiw Kdpt Nue;Jif najpNu   (Gwk; 6)
,iwQ;Rf - tzq;Ff. epd;nrd;dp - epdJ Kb. rpwe;j ehd;kiw KdptH ve;J if vjpNu - kpf;f ehd;F Ntjj;jpidAila me;jzH epd;id ePL tho;fntd;W vLj;j ifapd; Kd;Nd.  
Ntj Nts;tpfspd; NghJ  nfhl;lg;gl;l ePupdhy; epyk; Nrwhfpg; Ngha;tpl;ljhf ,d;ndhU Gwg;ghly;  njuptpf;fpwJ.
Mdhy; jkpo;  Ntjk; vd;W Nghw;wg;gLk; jpUf;FwNsh "mtpnrhupe;J Mapuk; Ntl;lypd;> xd;wd; capH nrUj;J cz;zhik ed;W" vd;W  rhw;wpaJ. Ntjj;ijf; fhjhy; Nfl;gJ R+j;jpuDf;F mlhJ vd;W Ntjrhj;jpuq;fs; jkpod; %isf;F tpyq;F Nghl;l NghJ jpUf;Fws; "vz;nzd;g Vid vOj;njd;g ,t;tpuz;Lk; fz;nzd;g thOk; capHf;F" vd;w ,bj;Jr; nrhy;ypaJ. ,g;gb Mupa Ntjj;jpw;Fk; nghJkiw NgRk; jpUf;FwSf;Fk; cs;s  NtWghLfs; kiyf;Fk; kLTf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s NtWghLfs; Nghd;wit. ntz;nza;f;Fk; Rz;zhk;Gf;Fk; cs;s NtWghL Nghd;wit. ituj;Jf;Fk; $ohq;fw;fSf;Fk; cs;s Ntw;Wik Nghd;wJ. ,g;gb Mapuk; NtWghLfis mLf;fpf; fhl;lyhk;. 
mz;ikapy; fd;dpahFkupapy; fhyj;jhy; mopahj nghJkiw je;j jpUts;StUf;F 133 mb cau epidTr; rpiyia jkpof Kjy;tH fiyQH K.fUzhepjp jpwe;J itj;jhH. Nfhyhfykhf ele;j ,e;jr; rpiyj; jpwg;G tpohtpy; Ngrpa  jkpo; tsHr;rpj;Jiw mikr;rH jkpo;f;Fbkfd; ciuahw;Wk;NghJ-  
fp. gpd;Dk; Kd;Dk;  fle;j 2000 Mk; Mz;Lfhykhf fsg;gpuH> gy;ytH> NrhoH Ml;rp ele;jJ. fp.gp. 1310 tiu jkpoH Ml;rp ePbj;jJ. gpd;dH jkpoH tPo;r;rp mile;jdH. jkpoH tPo;e;jhy; vog; gy Ehw;whz;L MFk;. NrhoH> ghz;ba kd;dH Ml;rp ts;StH fhl;ba newp Kiwg;gb elf;ftpy;iy. gz;ila fhyf; fy;ntl;by; $wg;gl;Ls;s nrhw;fs;> thHj;ijfspy; ts;StH newp Kiwg;gb Ml;rp nra;atpy;iy vd;gJ njspthfj; njupfpwJ. 
1891 ,y; kNdhd;kzpak; Re;judhH jkpof tuyhw;iw rupahf vOj Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wpdhH. mtH ngaupy; ney;iyapy; gy;fiyf; fofk; cUthf;fp cs;shH fiyQH. mtuJ ghly;jhd; jkpo;j;jha; tho;j;jhf cs;sJ. Ntj fhyq;fspy; Ntjk; XJjiy fhjpy; Nfl;lhNy mJ Fw;wkhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. 
mg;gbNa jg;gpj; jtwpf; Nfl;gtHfSf;F fLk; jz;lidAk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. jpUf;Fwspd; njhlf;fj;jpy; ts;StH vy;yhk; ,aw;if tpjpg;gb elf;Fk; vd;whH. ,Wjpapy; faikj;jdk; mjpfhuk; njhlq;Fk; NghJ tpuf;jp  epiyf;Fr; nrd;Ws;shH." (jpdG+kp - 2-01-2000)  
jkpo;tsHr;rp mikr;rH jkpo;Fbkfidj; njhlHe;J fy;tp mikr;rH NguhrpupaH f. md;gofd; NgrpdhH.  
",q;F elf;Fk; jpUtpoh cyfj; jkpoHfSf;Nf jpUehs; tpohthFk;. Nja;e;j jpuhtpld; jiy epkpu ,t;tpoh cjTk;. newp mwpah kf;fSf;F newp$Wk; ed;dhs; ,d;dhs; vd;gij kfpo;r;rpAld; Fwpg;gpl tpUk;GfpNwd;. flj;jy;fhuHfsplk; ,Ue;J 160 gazpfs; kPl;fg;gl;l ey;y nra;jp ,j;jpUehspy; te;jJ. ,uz;lhapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd;Njhd;wpa ts;StH $l flj;jg;gl;lhH. ts;Stupd; fw;gid tuyhw;iw AtAfk; flj;jpr; nrd;wJ. ts;StH Fwpj;J jtwhd fUj;Jf;fSk; gug;gg;gl;lJ. jpUf;Fws; $l NtW nkhopapy; ,Ue;J nkhop ngaHf;fg;gl;ljhff; fij fl;lg;gl;lJ. jkpOf;F kNdhd;kzpak; Re;judhH vOr;rpA+l;bdhH. ghujpahH Gul;rp Cl;bdhH.  
jpuhtpl ,af;fk;jhd; jpUf;Fwis kf;fsplk; nfhz;L nrd;wJ vd;W thog;ghbahH ,q;Nf Fwpg;gpl;lhH. Fws; Fwpj;j caHT jkpoHfs; kj;jpapy; Nt&d;w ghLgl;Nlhk;. ts;StUf;Fupa ngUik ,e;jpahtpy; ,y;iyjhd;. kw;w khepy kf;fs; jq;fs; nrhe;j khepy tuyhw;iwAk; $l mwpa khl;lhHfs;. fd;dlk;> Me;jpuk; Mfpa tw;wpy; jkpOk; cs;sJ. ts;StH $l me;j khepyq;fSf;Fg; Gutyuhf ,Ue;Js;shH. fHehlfhtpy; $l ts;StH jkpo;ehl;Lf;fhuH vd;gjhy;jhd; mtUf;F rpiy mikg;gjpy; khWghL cs;sJ. ts;Stupd; Fws;> kdpjdpd; tho;f;ifia ikakhff; nfhz;lJ.
ve;j kjr; rhHgpYk; ,y;yhj Ehy; jpUf;Fws;. mJ rka Ehy; my;y. mjw;F mg;ghw;gl;L vOjg;gl;l Ehy;. mjw;F Kd; $l kd;dH fhyj;jpy; jpUf;Fws; muq;Nfwtpy;iy. Vnddpy; jpUts;StH jd;khdkpf;ftH. mtuJ Ehiy muq;Nfw;Wk; msTf;Fj; jFjpahdtH md;W vtUk; ,y;iy.  
ts;StH$l xU kd;duhf ,Ue;Js;shH. kf;fsplk; jpUf;Fwis muq;Nfw;wpa ngUik jpKfitNa NrUk;. ts;Stiug; Nghd;W ,d;ndhU Gytd; cyfpy; vq;Fk; ,Jtiu gpwf;ftpy;iy. jpUf;Fws; Nghd;W NtW ve;j EhypYk; jj;Jtk; fpilahJ. kdpjd; ey;ygb tho ey;y fUj;ij Fws; tbtpy; nrhd;dtH ts;StH. ,J ekf;Ff; fpilj;j fUT+yk;. ,jid ehk; ed;F czuNtz;Lk;. czuhjjw;Ff; fhuzk; kjk;> rhjp> jPz;lhik.
ts;StH $l Jwtpfs; ,g;gbj;jhd; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Fwpg;gpltpy;iy. kdjpy; ey;y vz;zq;fs; ,Ue;jhNy NghJk;. Jwtpfs; vd;why; gpr;ir vLj;J tho;gtHfs; vd;W ,Ue;j epiyia vjpHj;jtH ts;StH. FwSf;F fiyQH ciu vOjpdhH. Xtpak; tiue;jhH. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; rpfukhf tpz;ZaH rpiy je;jhH. ts;Stupd; jpUf;Fwisg; Nghy; fiyQH tho;thq;F tho tpUk;GfpNwd;."  
cyfpy; ehd; mwpe;jstpy; ,uz;L rpe;jidahsHfs; kl;LNk  jhq;fs; nrhd;dij mg;gbNa Vw;Wf; nfhs;shky; ciuj;Jg; ghHj;J mwptpf;Fr; rupnad;W gl;lhy; kl;LNk Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sq;fs; vd;W nrhd;dhHfs;.  mjpy; xUtH nfsjk Gj;jH. kw;wtH jpUts;StH.  
jpUf;Fwis Cd;wpg; gFj;jwpTf; fz;NzhL gbg;gtHfSf;F xU cz;ik njupAk;. jpUts;StH Kg;ghy; vd;w xU Ehiy kl;Lk; vOjpdhH. mjidg; gpd;te;j ciuahrpupaHfs; jq;fs; tpUg;gj;jpw;F Vw;g gy ,ay;fshfg; gpupj;J> gj;Jg; gj;Jf; Fws;fisf; nfhz;l  mjpfhuq;fshf tFj;jhHfs;. ,ay; gFg;Gfs; NtW Ntwhf ,Ug;gjw;Fk;> rpy mjpfhuq;fspd; jiyg;Gfs; NtWgl;L ,Ug;gjw;Fk;> rpy Fws;fs; ,lk;khwp ,Ug;gjw;Fk; ,Jjhd; fhuzk; vdgJ ntspg;gil.   vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf gupNkysfupd; gFg;G Kiwf;Fk; jpUf;FwSf;F ciunra;j ,d;ndhU ciuahrpupauhd kzf;FltH itg;G Kiwf;Fk; NtWghLs;sJ. ghlNtWghLk; ,Uf;fpwJ.  
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf nghUl;ghypy; cs;s 70 Fws;fisAk; gupNkysfH murpay;( 25)> mq;f ,ay (32);> xopG ,ay; (13) vd %d;W ,ayhf tFf;f> ciuahrpupaH kzf;FltH mjid (gpd;tUk;) MW ,ay;fshf tFj;jpUf;fpwhH. 
    1) murpay;        (25)
    2) mikr;rpay;     (10)
    3) nghUs; ,ay;    (5)

    4) el;G ,ay;       (5)
    5) Jd;g ,ay;     (12)

    6) Fbapay;       (13)
 
",jDs; ,iwkhl;rp Kjyhf ,Lf;fz; mopahik <whff; $wpa mjpfhuk; ,Ugj;ije;Jk; ngUk;ghd;ikAk; murHf;F cupathjypd; murpay; vd;Wk;> mikr;R Kjyhf mitaQ;rhik <whfr; $wpa mjpfhuk; gj;Jk; ngUk;ghd;ik mikr;rHf;F cupathjypd; mikr;rpay;; vd;Wk;> ehL Kjyhfg; gilr;nrUf;F <whff; $wpa mjpfhuk; Ie;Jk; nghUl;gFjpahjypd; nghUspay; vd;Wk;> el;G Kjyhff; $lhel;G <whff; $wpa mjpfhuk; Ie;Jk; el;gpd; gFjpahjypd;  el;gpay; vd;Wk;> Ngjik Kjyhf kUe;J <whff; $wpa mjpfhuk; gd;dpuz;Lk; Nfl;Lf;Ff; fhuzkhjypd; Jd;gtpanyd;Wk;> Fb Kjyhf faik <whff; $wpa mjpfhuk; gjpd;%d;Wk; kf;fsJ ,ay;G $Wjypd; Fbapay; vd;Wk; Mfg; nghUl;ghy; $wpa mjpfhuk; vOgjhapw;W" vd;W kzf;FltH jhd; nra;j mjpfhug; gFg;gpw;fhd tpsf;fj;ijf; nfhLj;Js;shH. ,e;j tpsf;fk; Vw;ff; $bajhf mike;Js;sJ.  
,dp gupNkysfH - kzf;FltH ,UtuJ ciuapYk; Fws;fs; ,lk;khwp ,Ug;gjw;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf flTs; tho;j;J> thd;rpwg;G vd;w Kjy; ,uz;L mjpfhuq;fspy; tUk; Fws; vz;fs; fPNo nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Vida mjpfhuq;fspy; tUk; vz;fspd; tupir NtWghl;il %y Ehy;fisg; gbj;J mwpe;J nfhs;sTk;. 
gupNkysfHf;Fk; kzf;FltHf;Fk; ,ilapy; jpUf;Fwspy; cs;s ghlNgjj;jpw;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf gpd;tUk; Fws;fisf; $wyhk;. 
nra;ahky; nra;j cjtpf;F> itafKk;
thdfKk; Mw;wy; mupJ  
              (Fws; 101) 
kzf;FltH ghlk;nra;j  jpUf;Fwspy; "nra;ahky;" vd;w nrhy; "nra;ahjhH" vd;W fhzg;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ "nra;ahjhH nra;j cjtpf;F itafKk; thdfKk; Mw;wy; mupJ" vd;W fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,Nj Nghy;-  
,yndd;W jPait nra;aw;f> nra;apd;
,ydhFk; kw;Wk; ngaHj;J              (Fws; 205) 
kzf;FltH ghlk;nra;j ciuapy; ",yd;" vd;gJ ",yk;" vd;W fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,t;thNw ngwy; - ngww;F(213 )>  nrAk; ePu- nray;ePH (219)> tpj;jfHf;F - tpj;jfw;F (235)> xd;wd; - xd;wpd; (259)>  MirAs; - Mirapy; (266)  vd;w Fws;fspy; ghl Ngjk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. 
nghJthf ciu vd;gJ xU nra;Ais vLj;Jf; nfhz;L mUk;gj ciu Kjy;  nghopg;Giu tiu midj;ijAk; tpsf;fpg; nghUs; $WtjhFk;. jpUf;FwSf;F Kjd; Kjypy; ciu nra;jtHfs; gjpd;kH (gj;Jg;NgH). mtHfs;
    1) jUkH>
    2) kzf;FltH>
    3) jhkj;jH>
    4) er;rH>
    5) gUjp>
    6) jpUkiyaH>
    7) ky;yH>
    8) gupg;ngUkhd;>
    9) fhypq;fH>
    10) gupNkysfH.
 
,e;jg; gjpd;kupy; jpUf;FwSf;F Kjypy; ciunra;jtH jUkH. ,Wjpahf ciunra;jtH gupNkysfH vd;gij mwpQH cyfk; epWtpAs;sJ. ,tHfsJ fhyk; fp.gp. 10 Mk; Ehw;whz;by; ,Ue;J 13 Mk; Ehw;whz;L <whf vdf; fzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjhtJ jpUts;StUf;Fg;gpd; Mapuk; Mz;L fopj;J tho;e;jtHfNs jpUf;FwSf;F ciu nra;Js;sdH. 
jpUts;StH Ehy; nra;j Kiw> mtuJ cz;ikahd cs;sf;fplf;if vJ> mtH ifahz;l mwk;> Mjpgftd;> tlGyj;jhH> njd;Gyj;jhH> thdtH> tpRk;gpdH> ,katH> nja;tk;> Gj;Njs;> NjtH> ,k;ik> kWik> jhkiuf;fz;zhd; cyF> Mgad;> vOik> ,g;gb vz;zw;w nrhw;fSf;fhd rupahd nghUs; vd;d vd;gjpy; mwpQHfs; kj;jpapy; Mokhd fUj;J NtWghL epyTfpwJ. ,jw;F xU fhuzk; Fwspd; mikg;G.  
jkpopy; cs;s kpfr; rpwpa ahg;G ,Jjhd;. mjdhy; Vw;gl;Ls;s nrhw;rpf;fdKk; nghUl; nrwpTk;. kw;wJ ,lk;> nghUs;> fhy NtWghL. xU ngupa fUJNfhis VOrPH nfhz;l ,uz;L mbf;Fs;  mlf;fp jpUts;StH Fws; nra;Js;shH. mjid tpupf;fg; NghFk;NghJ fUj;J Kuz;ghL vOfpwJ. ,jd; tpisthfj;jhd; ,Jfhytiu Ke;Ehw;Wf;Fk; mjpfkhdtHfs; jpUf;FwSf;F ciu nra;Js;shHfs;. kpf mz;ikapy; jpUf;FwSf;F Gjpa tpsf;f Ehy; xd;iw rhykd; ghg;igah vOjp ntspapl;Ls;shH. 
jpUts;StuJ cs;sf;fplf;if vd;d vd;gij> mtH fhyj;Jg; gifg;Gyj;jpy; itj;J> md;iwa r%f nghUshjhu mikg;igf; fUj;jpy; nfhz;L xU ciu jkpo; mwpQHfs; ngUkf;fshy; Muha;e;J ctj;jy; fha;jy; ,d;wp ciu vOjg; gl Ntz;Lk;. mjpy; kjthilAk; ,Uf;ff; $lhJ> gFj;jwpT fz;Nzhl;lKk; ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. jpUts;StH $w te;jJ vd;d vd;gij cs;sthW $wNtz;Lk;. mtuJ fUj;Jf;fs; ,e;jf; fhyj;Jf;Fg; nghUe;jptuh vd;gjw;fhf mtuJ fUj;Jf;fisr;  rpijf;ff; $lhJ. mtuJ fUj;Jf;fs; nghUe;jp tuhJ tpl;lhy;> nghUe;jp tuhj Fws;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd> mtw;iw ehk; tpl;Ltplyhk;. Mdhy; Fuhd; Nghd;W xNu xU mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l Fws; kl;LNk ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.  
vdJ Kd;Diuapy; Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghy; jkpoHfsJ tho;f;if jpUf;Fwspd; mbg;gilapy; mika Ntz;Lk;. jpUf;Fwis xU G+irf;Fupa topghl;L Ehyhff; nfhs;shky; mjid tho;f;ifapd; topfhl;L Ehyhfj; jkpoHfs; iff;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.  
jpUf;Fws; vk;kplk; cs;s kjpg;gw;w nrhj;J kl;Lk; my;yhky; mJ jkpoH cyFf;F nfhLj;j nghJkiwAkhFk;. 

5. mfj;Jiw- Gwj;Jiw ,yf;fzk;  
rq;ffhyg; GytHfs; tho;f;ifia mfk;> Gwk; vd ,uz;lhf tFj;jdH. ,d;gk; gw;wpait mfk; vd;Wk; (cs;sj;Nj vOk; czHthd fhjy;gw;wpaJ) kw;wit ( tPuk;> Gfo;> fy;tp> nfhil) Gwk; vd;Wk; ngaH R+l;lg;gl;ld. 
njhy;fhg;gpaUf;F Kw;gl;l GytHfSk; MrpupaHfSk; tFj;j mfk;> Gwk; vd;Dk; tho;f;if Kiwia jk;  fhyj;J khWjy;fisAk; cs;slf;fpj;jhd; njhy;fhg;gpaH nghUs; ,yf;fzk; vOjpdhH. mjid ,yf;fzkhfTk;> mfehDhW> ew;wpiz> FWe;njhif> Iq;FWEhW> fypj;njhif Kjypa njhif Ehy;fisAk;> FwpQ;rpg;ghl;L> Ky;iyg;ghl;L> gl;bdg;ghiy Kjypa gj;Jg;ghl;L Ehy;fisAk; ,yf;fpakhfTk; nfhz;L Muha;e;jhy; rq;ffhyj; jkpoHfs; fl;bnaOg;gpa mfg;nghUs; tho;f;ifiaf; fz;L fspf;fyhk;.  
,tw;NwhL gf;jp ,af;fk; gutpa fhyj;jpy; vOe;j khzpf;fthrfupd; jpUntk;ghit>jpUf;NfhitiaAk;  Mz;lhspd; jpUg;ghitiAk; gbj;jhy; rq;ffhy jiytd; -jiytp  mfg;nghUs; ,yf;fzj;ij vg;gb ehafd; -ehafp cwTf;F ,tHfs;  capHehbahff; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs; vd;gij vspjpy; fhzyhk;. 
murDf;Fg; gjpy; ,iwtd;  ghl;Lilj; jiytdhfg; nfhz;lhlg;gl;lhd;. fhjYf;Fg; gpd;dzpahf ,Ue;j ,aw;if tHzid ,iwtdpd; jpUj;jiyj;ij tHzpf;f gad;gLj;jg; gl;lJ. murdpd; nfhil> tPuk;> Mw;wy; ,iwtdpd; fUiz> jpUTUt moF> jpUtpisahly;> jpUtUl;nray; ,tw;iwg; Nghw;w Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. khdplf; fhjiy tpsf;fpa mfj;jpiz ,yf;fzk; gf;jp czHit vLj;Jr; nrhy;Yk; ehaf-ehafp ghtkhf khwpaJ. ,e;j khWjy; jkpopy; gf;jp ,yf;fpaj;Jf;F tpj;jpl;lJ.
Kd;dk; mtDila ehkk; Nfl;lhs;
   %Hj;jp mtdpUf;Fk; tz;zk; Nfl;lhs;
gpd;id mtDila M&H Nfl;lhs;

     NgHj;Jk; mtDf;Nf gpr;rp ahdhs;
md;idiaAk; mj;jidAk; md;Nw ePj;jhs;
     mfd;whs; mfyplj;jhH Mrhu uj;ij
jd;id kwe;jhs; jd; ehkk; nfl;lhs;
     jiyg;gl;lhs; eq;if jiytd; jhNd!
 (mg;gH Njthuk; -6501) 
thuzk; Mapuk; R+o tyQ; nra;J
ehuzd; ek;gp elf;fpd;whd; vd;W vjpH
G+uz nghw;Flk; itj;Jg; Gwk; vq;Fk;
Njhuzk; ehl;lf; fdhf; fz;Nld; Njhop ehd;!
(Mz;lhs; ghRuk; -557) 
cyf nkhopfs; mj;jidapYk; jkpo;nkhopapNyNa mjpfsT gf;jp ,yf;fpak; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;w cz;ik czuj;jf;fJ. ehy;tH vd miof;fg;gLk; irt ehad;khHfs; mg;gH> Re;juH> MSilg;gps;isahH> mUs;nkhopthrfH  ,aw;wpa Njthuq;fs; mope;jJ Nghf ,d;W vQ;rpapUg;git Vwf;Fiwa vz;zhapuk; MFk;. gd;dpU itzt Mo;thHfs; ghbait ehyhapuj; jpt;tpag;gpuge;jkhFk;. ,J itztHfshy; (njd;fiy) jkpo; Ntjk; vdg; Nghw;wpg; Gfog;gLfpwJ.  
Mz;lhspd; (Mwhk; Ehw;whz;L) jpUg;ghitAk;> khzpf;fthrfupd;  (xd;gjhk; Ehw;whz;L) jpUntk;ghitAk; rpwe;j jkpo; ,yf;fpakhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.  jkpopd; nrhy;eak;> Xireak;> nghUs; eak; ,tw;wpw;F ,e;j ,uz;L jpUg;gs;spnaOr;rpg; ghitfSk; vLj;Jf; fhl;lhfj; jpfo;fpd;wd.  
khHfopj; jpq;fs; kjpepiwe;j ed;dhshy;
ePuhlg; NghJtPH NghJkpNdh NeupioaPH
rPHky;Fk; Ma;ghbr; nry;tr; rpWkPHfhs;
$HNty; nfhLe;njhopyd; ee;jNfhgd; Fkud;
VuhHe;j fz;zp aNrhij ,sQ;rpq;fk;
fhHNkdpr; nrq;fz; fjpHkjpak;Nghy; Kfj;jhs;
ehuhazNe ekf;Nf giw jUthd;
ghNuhH Gfog; gbe;NjNyhH vk;ghtha!;
vd;W jpUg;ghit njhlq;FfpwJ. 
MjpAk; me;jKk; ,y;yh mUk;ngUQ;
Nrhjpia ahk;ghlf; Nfl;NlAk; ths;jlq;fd;
khNj tsUjpNah td;nrtpNah epd;nrtpjhd;
khNjtd; thHfoy;fs; tho;j;jpa tho;j;njhypNgha;
tPjptha;f; Nfl;lYNk tpk;kp tpk;kp nka;kwe;J
NghjhH mkspapd;Nkd; epd;Wk; Guz;L,q;qd;
VNjDk; Mfhs; fplle;jhs; vd;Nd nd;Nd
<Njvk; Njhop gupRvNyhH vk;ghtha;! 
vd jpUntk;ghit njhlq;FfpwJ. 
tho;f;ifia mfk;> Gwk; vd ,Utifahfg; gpupj;j GytHfs;  ",d;gk;> vd;gij mfk; vd;Wk;> Vida "mwk;> nghUs;" Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; "Gwk;" vd;W tFj;j gpd;dH  GytHfs; mfj;ij kPz;Lk; fstpay;> fw;gpay; vd ,uz;lhfg;  gpupj;jdH. 
fstpay;> fw;gpay; nghUs; ,yf;;fzk; gz;ila jkpo; kf;fs; kzk; nra;J nfhz;l Kiwik> mtHjk; fhjy; tho;f;if> jiytidAk; jiytpiaAk; ,izj;J itf;Fk; ghq;fd;> Njhop> fsTg; GzHr;rpapy; jiytDk; NjhopAk; jiytidr; Nrhjpf;Fk; Kiwfs;> jdf;F Vw;gLk; Jd;gq;fisg; nghUl;gLj;jhJ jiytpia miltjpy; jiytd; vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; Kaw;rp>  
fhjy; tag;gl;l jiytp gpj;Jg;gpbj;jts;Nghy; ,Ug;gijf; fhZk; jha; jd;kfsJ "Neha;" ,d;dnjd;W mwpahJ VNjh "Nga;"; gpbj;jpUf;fyhk; vd;w epidg;gpy; Ntyid mioj;J FwpNfl;Fk; Ngjik>  fhjyHf;Fs; Vw;gl;l fsitj; Njhop jiytpapd; jha;f;F Fwpg;ghy; czHj;Jk; jpwik> fsT ntspg;gbd; ,Ujpwj;Jg; ngw;NwhUk; xd;W$b mtHfSf;F Cuwpa  jpUkzk; nra;J itf;Fk; KiwfisAk;> ngw;NwhH jpUkzj;Jf;F cld;glhJ FWf;Nf epw;Fk; fhiy Njhop jiytpiaj; jiytNdhL $l;b mDg;Gjy;> mq;qdk; NrHj;J mDg;Gk; NghJ Njhop jiytdplk; vLj;Jf; $Wk;  tho;f;iff;Fj; Njitahd mwpTiu ,tw;iwnay;yhk; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;. 
jkpo; nkhopapy; ,d;Ws;s kpfg; gioa ,yf;fz Ehyhd njhy;fhg;gpak; fstpay;> fw;gpay; jpUkzq;fisg; gw;wp tpupthff; $Wfp;d;wJ. njhy;fhg;gpak; vd;w fhyf; fz;zhb %yk;  jkpo;r; r%fj;jpd; gioa ehfupfk;> gz;ghL ,tw;iwf;  fz;L kfpoTk; ngUikg;glTk; tha;g;gspf;fpwJ.  
cyfj;Jg; nghUs;fis Kjw;nghUs;> fUg;nghUs;> cupg;nghUs; vd %d;whf ,yf;fz EhyhrpupaHfs; gFj;jdH. 
Kjw;nghUs; vdg;gLtd epyKk; fhyKk; MFk;. fupg;nghUshtd capHg; nghUSk; (nja;tk;>  kf;fs;> tpyq;Ffs;>......)capuy; (kuk;> nrb> nfhbfs;> CH....)nghUSk; MFk;. cupg;nghUshtd kf;fl;F cupa nghUs;> m/J mfj;jpiz> Gwj;jpiz vdg;gLk;. jpiznad;why; xOf;fk;. mfj;jpy; epyTk; xOf;fj;ij mfj;jpizfs; vd;Wk; Gwj;jpy; epfOk; epfo;r;rpfis Gwj;jpiz vd;Wk; $WtH.  
mfkhtJ ,d;gk; EfHjyhy;  cs;sj;jpy; vOk; czHr;rpfspd; ntspg;ghL MFk;.mfj;jpy; epfo;tjhy; mfk; vdg; gl;lJ. NtW thHj;ijfspy; nrhd;dhy; MZk; ngz;Zk; xd;W$b md;NghL thOk; fhjy; tho;f;if. 
Kjy; fU cupg;nghUs; vd;w %d;Nw
EtYq;fhiy Kiw rpwe;jdNt

ghlYs; gapd;wpit ehLk; fhiy.
         (njhy;.nghUs; - mfj;jpiz 3) 
fUj;Jiu- Kjw;nghUs;> fUg;nghUs;> cupg;nghUs; vd Kiwahfr; nrhy;Yk; epiyapy;> ,yf;fpaj;Js; toq;fpatw;iwf; fUjp mikj;Jf; nfhz;ldH. 
mfk; fstpay;> fw;gpay; vd ,uz;lhfg; gFf;fg;gLk;.  mfj;jpizfs; FwpQ;rp> Ky;iy> kUjk;> nea;jy;> ghiy> iff;fpis> ngUe;jpiz vd vOtifg;gLk;.  
,tw;wpw;fhd cupg;nghUs;fs; KiwNa - 
FwpQ;rpj; jpizf;Ff; $ly;- fsT jpUkzj;Jf;F Kjy; $b kfpo;e;jpUj;jy;.  
Ky;iyj; jpizf;F  ,Uj;jy; - fhjyd; gpupe;jNghJk; (Xjy;> gif> nghUs;> JhJ> mwg;Gwq; fhty; epkpj;jk;) kPz;Lk; tUthd; vd;w ek;gpf;ifNahL jpUk;gp tUk;tiu fhjyp nghWikAld; fhj;jpUj;jy;. 
kUjj; jpizf;F Cly; - $bapUf;Fk; NghJ xUtNuhL xUtH fhl;Lk; ngha;f; Nfhgk;> my;yJ guj;ijNahL cwT nfhz;Ltpl;Lg; gpd; ,y;yk; jpUk;Gk; NghJ fhjyp fhjyNdhL fUtpf; nfhs;tJ..
nea;jy; jpizf;F ,uq;fy;- jiytd; gpupthy; thba jiytp mtdJ tUiff;fhf Vq;fpf; fyq;fp muw;Wjy;> iee;J cUFjy;>  
ghiyj; jpizf;Fg; gpupjy; - nghUs;> JhJ> fy;tp  fhuzkhfj; jiytd; gpupe;j NghJ  gpuptpdhy; fhjyp nfhs;Sk;  tUj;jKk;> ntk;ikAk;> GOf;fKk;.  
,e;j xOfyhWfshd $ly;> ,Uj;jy;> Cly;> ,uq;fy;> gpupjy;  Itif epyj;Jf;Fk; cupadNtahapDk;  ,yf;fpa kuG xt;nthU jpizf;Fk; xt;nthU xOf;fj;jpid rpwg;gpj;Jf; $wpajhfg; nghUs; nfhs;syhk;.     
GwkhtJ mwQ;nra;jYk;> kwQ;nra;jYk;> nghUsPl;lYk; MFk;> mtw;why; Ma gad; gpwHf;Fg; Gydhjypd; Gwk; vdg; gl;lJ.  
mfk;NghyNt Gwj;jpw;fhd jpizfs; vOtifg;gLk;. mitahtd ntl;rp> tQ;rp> copiQ> Jk;ig> thif> fhQ;rp> ghlhz;.  
ntl;rpj; jpiz vd;gJ FwpQ;rp vd;w mfj;jpizf;Fg; Gwj; jpiz MFk;.  
tQ;rpj; jpiz Ky;iyf;Fg;  Gwj;jpiz.  
copiQ jpiz kUjj;Jf;Fg; Gwd;. 
Jk;igj; jpiz nea;jYf;Fg; Gwd;. 
thif ghiyf;Fg; Gwj; jpiz MFk;.  
fhQ;rp ngUe;jpizf;Fg; Gwk;.  
ghlhz; Gwj;jpiz iff;fpis vd;w mfj;jpizf;Fg; Gwd;. 
mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk; vd;w %d;Wk; tho;f;ifapd;  cWjpg; nghUs;fs; vdTk;> xOf;fyhWfs; vdTk; ngaH ngWk;.   
Kjw;nghUspd;  xU $whfr; nrhy;yg;Lk; epyk; ItifahdJ. ,e;j Itif epyj;Jf;Fupa nja;tk;> kf;fs;> xOf;fk;gw;wp njhy;fhg;gpar; R+j;jpuk; tpupj;Jf; $Wk;. 
khNahd; Nka fhLiw cyfKk;
NrNahd; Nka  iktiu cyfKk;
Nte;jd; Nka jPk;Gdy; cyfKk;

tUzd; Nka ngUkzy; cyfKk;

Ky;iy FwpQ;rp kUjk; nea;jy; vdr;

nrhy;ypa Kiwahy; nrhy;yTk; gLNk.
 
     (njhy;.nghUs; 951) 
(khNahd; - jpUkhy;> NrNahd; - KUfd;> Nte;jd; - ,e;jpud;> Nka - tpUk;Gfpd;w> cyfk; - epyk;> iktiu - Nkfk; #oe;j kiy> jPk;Gdy; - kpFe;j ePiuAila) 
fhLk; fhL rhHe;j epyk; Ky;iy. kiyAk; kiyrhHe;j epyk; FwpQ;rp> taYk; tay;rhHe;j epyk; kUjk;> flYk; fly; rhHe;j epyk; nea;jy; vdg;gLk;.  
FwpQ;rpAk; Ky;iyAk; thdk; ngha;j;j fhyj;jpy; tul;rpAw;W epiykhWk; NghJ mJ ghiy vdg; ngaH ngWk;. 
mfj;jpiz Vohfg; gpupf;fg;gl;lJ. xUtd; xUj;jp vd;Dk; ,UtupilNa cz;lhFk; $l;Lwit iff;fpis> Ie;jpiz> ngUe;jpiz vd tFg;gJ njhy;fhg;gpa kuG. mfj;jpizf;FupahH jiykf;fs; vdr; Rl;lg; ngw;wdH. fpotd;-fpoj;jp> jiytd;-jiytp>  jiykfd;-jiykfs; vd;Dk; nrhy;yhl;rp ,jd;top vz;zg;ngw;wJ. 
iff;fpis xUjiyf; fhkj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk;. ngUe;jpiz nghUe;jhf; fhkj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk;. vQ;rpa jpizfshd FwpQ;rp> Ky;iy> kUjk;> nea;jy;> ghiy Ie;Jk; md;gpd; Ie;jpiz vdr; rpwg;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.  
,Utud;Gk; xj;j epiyikahfpa eLtz; Ie;jpizf; fz;Zk; GzHg;Gk;> gpupjYk;>,Uj;jYk; ,uq;fYk;> ClYkhfpa cupg;nghUs; fsT> fw;G vd;Dk; ,Utiff; ifNfhspDk; epfOk;.  
GzHjy; gpupjy; ,Uj;jy; ,uq;fy;
Cly;> mtw;wpd; epkpj;jk; vd;wpit>

NeUq;fhiy> jpizf;Fupg; nghUNs.
 
(njhy;.nghUs; -mfj;jpiz ,ay; 16) 
njhy;fhg;gpaH  jkpo;kuGf;Fg; Gwj;jhd tlEhyhH tFj;j vl;Ltifj; jpUkzq;fisf; fPo;f;fz;lthW Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.  
,d;gKk; nghUSk; mwDk; vd;whq;F
md;nghL GzHe;j Ie;jpiz kUq;fpd;
fhkf; Nfhl;lk; fhZk; fhiy
kiwNahH Njvj;J kd;wy; vl;lDs;
Jiwaik ey;aho;j; JizaNkhH ,ay;Ng.
 (njhy;.nghUs; -fstpay; 3>1) 
(kiwNahH- me;jzH. Njvk; - Ehy;) 
,d;gKk;> nghUSk; mwKk; vd;W nrhy;yg;ngw;w> md;NghL ,ize;j Ie;J xOf;fq;fisg; gFj;Jiuj;jy; jkpo; kuG. gpukk;> gpurhgj;jpak;> Muplk;> nja;tk;> fhe;jUtk;> mRUk;> ,uhf;fjk;> igrhrk; vd kzKiwfis  vz;tifahf gFj;Njhjy; MupaH kuG. vdNt ,t;ntz;tif kzKiwfSk; jkpoHf;F cupadty;y vd;gJ NghjUk;. 
jkpoupd; fsT xOf;fKk;> Mupaupd; fe;jUt kzKk; xd;nwd rpy ciuahrpupaHfs; Fwpg;gpLtH. Mdhy; cz;ik mJty;y. 
jkpoupd; fsT xOf;fKk;> Mupaupd; fe;jUt kzKk; ek;gpAk; eq;ifAk; jhNk xUtiu xUtH re;jpj;Jr; NrHjy; vd;w xU tifapy; kl;LNk xj;jpUg;gd> eilKiwfSk; Nehf;fKk; Kw;wpYk; NtWgl;lit. fsT kzk; jiytDk; jiytpAk; kiwe;J re;jpg;gjhfpa njhlf;f epiyia kl;Lk; Fwpf;Fk;. fe;jUtNkh gpwuwpahkh; ,UtUk; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;tijf; fhl;Lk;. 
fsTr; re;jpg;G cs;sg; GzHr;rp xd;iwNa Fwpf;Fk;. Cuwpaj; jpUkzk; eilngw;w gpd;dNu kf;fs;g; Ngw;wpw;fhd cly; $ly; epfOk;. fe;jUt kzj;jpy; jpUkzk; vd;w xd;W ,y;iy. jpUkzk; ,d;wpNa $Ljy; epfo;e;J tpLfpwJ.  
Mupaf; fe;jUtk; fw;gpd;wpAk; mikAk;. jkpo;g; gz;ghl;bNy fw;gpy;yhj fsT mwkhff; fUjg; gLtjpy;iy. mwk; vd;w Ml;rpia xOf;fk; vd;w nghUspNyNa njhy;fhg;gpaUk; jpUts;StUk; ifahz;Ls;sdH. mwj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; jHkk; vd;w tl nrhy; mwj;jpd; rpwg;ig KOJk; czHj;jhJ. 
kdJf;fz; khrpyd; Mjy; midj;J mwd;. m/njhope;j nrhy;Yk; NtlKk; mwd; vdg;glhJ vd;ghH ts;StH. NkYk; mOf;fhW ( nghwhik)> mth(Nguhir)> ntFsp ( Nfhgk;)> ,d;dhr;nrhy; (fLQ;nrhy;) ,e;ehd;Fk; fbe;J elg;gNj mwkhFk; vd;ghH.  

6. fstpay;- fw;gpay; 
fsT vd;gJ tQ;ridahw; gpwHf;Fupa nghUisf; ftHe;J nfhs;Sjyhfpa cyfpay; fsty;y. jiytDk; jiytpAk; ey;Yhopd; nrayhy; jhNk vjpHg;gl;L cyfj;jhHmwpahJ kiwe;njhOFjy; MFk;. gpwH mwpahky; csq; fye;J goFk; ngUq;Nfz;ikahjyhy; ,f;fsT mwj;jpd; ghw;gl;lJ. ,f;fstpid kiwe;njhOf;fk;> kiw> mUkiw vd;w nrhw;fshy; toq;FtH njhy;fhg;gpaH. 
jkpoH $Wk; fsnthOf;fk; md;gpd; kpFjpahy; jhd; mts; vd;w Ntw;Wikapd;wp ,UtUk; xUtuha; xOFk; cs;sg;GzHr;rpahFk;. xUtiu xUtH kze;J thOk; fw;ngd;Dk; jpz;ik jkpoH xOfyhwhfpa fsnthOf;fj;jpd; Kbe;j gad; vd;gH.vd;Wk; fw;gpdpd;W tOthky; md;gpdhw; ,izAk; cs;sg; GzHr;rpNa fsnthOf;fj;jpd; rpwg;gpayhFk;.  ,JNt jkpopay; tof;fkhfpa fsTf;Fk; tlEhy; kzkhfpa fe;jUtj;Jf;Fk; cs;s mbg;il NtWghlhFk;. 
fw;gpay;   
jiytd; jd;NdhL md;G fhl;Lk; jiytpiag; ngw;NwhH nfhLg;gg; gyH mwpa kze;J thOk; kidtho;f;ifNa fw;ngdr; rpwg;gpj;J ciuf;fg;gLk;. ,jidf; fuzk; vd;w nrhy;yhy; njhy;fhg;gpaH toq;FthH.  
fw;G vdg;gLtJ fuznkhL Gzuf;
nfhsw;Fup kugpd; fpotd; fpoj;jpiaf;

nfhilf;Fup kugpNdhH nfhLg;gf; nfhs;tJNk.
 
(njhy;. nghUs; -fw;gpay; 4> R+j;jpuk; 1) 
fw;G vd;W $wg;ngWtJ> tJitr; rlq;Fld; nghUe;jpf; nfhs;tjw;Fupa kugpDila jiytd;> jiytpiaf; nfhLg;gjw;Fupa kugpidAilNahH nfhLg;gJ nfhs;StJ.
(fuzk; - rlq;F> tJit -kzk;> fpotd; fpoj;jp - jiytd; jiytp> ) 
nfhLg;Nghupd;wpAk; kzk; cz;L. ngw;NwhuJ cld;ghbd;wp fsnthOf;fj;jpy; ,ize;J jiytDk; jiytpAk; CHtpl;L CH Nghjy; cz;L. ,J cld;Nghf;F vdg;gLk;.  
nfhLg;NghH ,d;wpAk; fuzk; cz;Nl
GzHe;J cld; Nghfpa fhiyahd.
 
(njhy;.nghUs;-fw;gpay;  2)  
jiykfsJ kdj;jpd;fz; mike;j fyq;fh epiyahfpa jpz;ikNa fw;ngdg;gLtJ. njhy;fhg;gpaH fhyj;jpYk; mjw;F Kd;dUk; ,j;jpUkzr; rlq;F vy;yh kf;fSf;Fk; tpjpf;fg; gltpy;iy. Nru> Nrho> ghz;bauhfpa %Nte;jH FLk;gj;jpw;Nf Kjd; Kjy; tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH VidNahHf;Fk; mJ tpjpf;fg;l;lJ.

fsT kzj;jpy; ngha;Ak; tOTk; Njhd;wpa gpd;dH ngupNahHfs; fztDk; kidtpAk; gy;NyhH Kd;  ,ize;J tho;jw;Fupa kzr;rlq;fhd fuzj;ij ngupNahHfs; tFj;jhHfs;.
 
ngha;Ak; tOTk; Njhd;wpa gpd;dH
IaH ahj;jdH fuzk; vd;g. 
  (njhy;. nghUs; -fw;gpay; 4>- 4)
(tO - Fw;wk;> IdH - ngupNahH) 
,y;ywk; 
,y;yw tho;f;ifapd; gad; vd;d? ,y;yw tho;f;ifapd; ,Wjpf; fhyj;J>  ngUik nghUe;jpa kf;fSld; epiwe;J> mwj;jpid tpUk;gpa Rw;wj;NjhL jiytDk;> jiytpAk;> rpwe;jjhfpa nrk;nghUis ,iltplhJ epidj;jy; kidawj;jpd; fle;j fhyg; gadhFk;. jkpoHfs; ,y;ywj;Jf;Fg; gpd;Gjhd; Jwtwj;ij Nkw;nfhz;ldH. FLk;gj;jijg; gpupe;J jdpj;J thOk; Jwtwk; jkpo; kf;fsplk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. ,jid-
fhkk; rhd;w filf; Nfhl; fhiy
Vkk; rhd;w kf;fnshL Jtd;wp

mwk;Gup Rw;wnkhL fpotDk; fpoj;jpAk;

rpwe;jJ gapw;wy; ,we;jjd; gaNd
(nhhy;. fw;gpay; 4> - 51) 
njhy;fhg;gpaH nka;g;ghl;baypy; jiytd;-jiytpf;F ,ilapy; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba gj;Jg; nghUj;jj;ij gpd;tUkhW $WthH. 
gpwg;Ng> Fbik> Mz;ik> Mz;NlhL>
cUT> epWj;j fhkthapy;>

epiwNa> mUNs> czHnthL> jpUvd

KiwAwf; fpse;j xg;gpdJ tifNa
(njhy;. nghUs;- nka;g;ghl;bay; 6> R+j;jpuk; 25) 
1. Fyg;gpwg;G 2. xOf;fk; -gz;ghL 3.Ms;tpidAilik 4. taJ 5. tbtk; -tdg;G 6. fhkxOf;fj;jpw;Fupa cs;sf; fpsHr;rp 7. rhy;G 8. mUSilik 9. cs;sf; Fwpg;ig mwpe;njhOFk; Ez;zwpT 10. nja;tg;nghypT vd;w gj;Jg; nghUj;jk;.
gpwg;ngd;gJ Fbg;gpwj;jy;. mjw;Fj;jf;f xOf;fk; Fbik vdg;gLk;. mLj;J mwpTilNahH tpyf;f Ntz;lhjd gj;Jk; vitnait vd;gjid njhy;fhg;gpaH njhFj;Jr; nrhy;thH.  
epk;gpup> nfhLik> tpag;nghL> Gwnkhop>
td;nrhy;> nghr;rhg;G> kbiknahL Fbik

,d;Gwy;> Voik kwg;NghL> xg;Gik

vd;wpit ,d;ik vd;kdhH GytH 
(njhy;.nghUs;- nka;g;ghl;bay; 6 -R+j;jpuk; 26) 
    epk;gpup          -  mOf;fhW
    nfhLik        -  mwdopag; gpwiur; R+Ok; R+o;r;rp.
    tpag;G          -  jk;ikg; ngupauhf epidj;jy;
    Gwnkhop        -   Gwq;$wy;
    td;nrhy;       --   fLk;nrhy;
    nghr;rhg;G       -   NrhHT
    kbik          -  Kaw;rpapd;ik
    Fbik ,d;Gwy;   -  jd; Fyj;jpdhYk; jd; Fbg;gpwg;gpdhYk; jk;ik kjpj;J
                      ,d;Gwy;
  
   Voik kwg;NghL   -   gzpTlikia kwj;jy;
   xg;Gik          -   xg;gpl;L Nehf;fy; 
njhy;fhg;gpag; nghUsjpfhuk; xd;gJ ,ay;fspy; Kjy; MW ,ay;fSk; mfj;jpiz> Gwj;jpiz gw;wp tpupj;Jf; $Wfpd;wd. jkpo;nkhopapd; ,yf;fzr; rpwg;igAk;>jkpoHfspd; gz;ghL> ehfupfr; rpwg;Gf;fisAk; xy;fhg;Gfo; njhy;fhg;gpak; ,yf;fpa eaj;NjhL tpupthf vLj;Jf; $WfpwJ. gbj;Jg; nghUs; nfhs;tJ mUikahf ,Ue;jhYk; njhy;fhg;gpa ciufspd;  JizNahL mjidg; gbj;J kfpoyhk;.